Construct Validity and Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Self-Control and Self-Management Scale

Article excerpt

The Self-Control and Self-Management Scale (SCMS) was developed to be a content and construct valid measure of the self-regulatory model of self-management (Mezo, 2009). The purpose of the present study was to expand on previous findings by evaluating construct and factorial validity in a Canadian university sample (n = 410). The descriptive statistics and reliability estimates of the SCMS were replicated in the current sample. In terms of construct validity, convergent validity was obtained with mindfulness, positive affect, negative affect, life satisfaction, depression, stress, and anxiety. Likewise, discriminant construct validity was obtained with social desirability, irrational beliefs, and anxiety sensitivity. Furthermore, the three-factor structure of the SCMS was supported by a confirmatory factor analysis. Taken as a whole, these results suggest that the SCMS is a robust measure of self-management and should be considered a viable measure in future research and applied settings.

Keywords: self-management, self-control, self-regulation, test validation, confirmatory factor analysis

Self-regulatory theories and models have become integral to many areas of psychological science and constitute one of the overarching theories of personality and social psychology (Carver & Scheier, 2009). As an overarching and integrative theory in human psychology, self-regulatory theories have influenced the conceptualisation and the societal applications of psychological science in domains as diverse as health promotion (Bandura, 2005), chronic pain management (Sauer, Bums, & Carlson, 2010), and increasing performance and reducing absenteeism in occupational settings (Vancouver & Day, 2005). Accordingly, multiple self-report instruments have been developed to assess various models of self-regulation and to thereby support the application of these models (Hoyle & Bradfield, 2010). Among existing selfregulatory models, the specific model of self-control or selfmanagement has received attention for its theoretical and applied value, particularly in mental health and primary health care applications (Febbraro & Cium, 1998; Gerlinghoff, Gross, & Backmund, 2003; Keefe, Hauck, Egert, Rimer, & Kornguth, 1994; Westover & Lanyon, 1990). Self-management has been conceptualised as the ability to persist in a low-probability behaviour without external support (Kanfer, 1970). A recently developed instrument, the Self-Control and Self-Management Scale (SCMS; Mezo, 2009), was designed to assess the self-management construct with an emphasis on establishing current content and construct validity. The intent of this study is to build on the initial development of the SCMS, with the goals of verifying and expanding its construct and factorial validity.

The importance of further evaluating the SCMS is predicated on the importance of the self -management construct. The construct of self-management represents a model of self-regulation that was independently defined and investigated by Kanfer (1970, 1996; Rokke & Rehm, 2001), and Bandura (1991). The common components in the self-management construct have included selfmonitoring, self-evaluating, and self-reinforcing. Self-monitoring includes attention to informative stimuli; self-evaluating includes a judgment as to whether monitored stimuli indicate progress toward valued goals; and self-reinforcing includes self-administered reward or lack thereof. These three self-management components have been evaluated in applied settings both separately and in combination and are considered among the most empirically supported interventions for anxiety, depression, habit disturbances, and health maintenance behaviours (Febbraro & Cium, 1998; Rokke & Rehm, 2001). For example, self-management therapy for depression has been identified as an empirically supported treatment with Strong Research Support (Society of Clinical Psychology, 2011).

The SCMS was designed to promote ongoing research and applied practice in the self-management model of self-regulation (Mezo, 2009). …