Historical Encyclopedia of U.S. Presidential Use of Force, 1789-2000


Use of military force without a declaration of war has been a weapon in the arsenal of U.S. presidents for the last 200 years. Force has become an increasingly more (relevant) foreign policy action in the post-Cold War world. This comprehensive resource approaches the study of the use of force from several theoretical approaches: the historical record, which includes regional analyses of Latin America/the Caribbean, Europe, Asia, the Middle East/North Africa, and Sub-Saharan Africa; the data sets that focus on the use of force; the international level, which includes democratic peace, multilateralism, and Yugoslavia; domestic politics, which includes Congress, the media, and public opinion; executive-congressional relations, including political and constitutional issues; ethics; and theories of decision making on the use of force.