The ancient civilizations of the Near East--Egypt, Assyria, Babylonia, the Hittites, and Canaanites--constituted the first formalized international relations system in world history. Holy wars, peace treaties, border regulations, trade relations, and the extradition of refugees were problems for ancient ambassadors and diplomats as much as they are today.
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Brotherhood of Kings: How International Relations Shaped the Ancient Near East By Amanda H. Podany Oxford University Press, 2010
No Global Labor History without Africa: Reciprocal Comparison and Beyond By Hofmeester, Karin Lucassen, Jan da Silva, Filipa Ribeiro History In Africa, Vol. 41, 2014
Fighting for a Living: A Comparative History of Military Labour, 1500-2000 By Byers, Andrew Canadian Journal of History, Vol. 50, No. 2, Autumn 2015
Peer-reviewed publications on Questia are publications containing articles which were subject to evaluation for accuracy and substance by professional peers of the article's author(s).
The Global Coffee Economy in Africa, Asia, and Latin America, 1500-1989/sacred Trees, Bitter Harvest: Globalizing Coffee in Northwest Tanzania By Sheridan, Michael African Studies Review, Vol. 47, No. 2, September 2004
Civilians in Warfare 1500-1789: Civilians Have Always Suffered in Warfare, and Early Modern Europe Was No Exception. but They Contributed to War as Well, through Their Taxes, Their Victuals and Their Bodies. Jeremy Black Explores the Relationship between Civilian and Military By Black, Jeremy History Today, Vol. 56, No. 5, May 2006
The Mediterranean Sea Cradle of Civilization By Saglamer, Gulsun UN Chronicle, Vol. 50, No. 1, April 2013
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Islam's 'Idealistic Version of Itself' Not Quite the Reality, Historian says.(WORLD)(BRIEFING: MIDDLE EAST: Q&A) By Duin, Julia The Washington Times (Washington, DC), October 30, 2002