The New Eastern Europe

The New Eastern Europe

The New Eastern Europe

The New Eastern Europe

Excerpt

The chapters on Poland and Lithuania originally appeared in the Contemporary Review, the chapter on Finland in the Fortnightly Review, and the chapter on the Ukraine in the Edinburgh Review: the writer gratefully acknowledges in all these cases permission to reprint. The three chapters on Poland were written, the first just before the Russian Revolution, the second just before the negotiations at Brest, the third just after the Armistice at the end of 1918. It was originally intended to re- write them from the standpoint of the date of publication. On consideration, however, they have been left as they were written, in the belief that it is no bad way of treating the difficult and complicated Polish question to record its development as it presented itself at three critical stages.

The matter of orthography in the case of a book on Eastern Europe is troublesome. In the case of Russian names the writer has generally followed the practice of Dr. Dillon, whose authority is quite unequalled in England, based as it is not only on an exceptionally intimate experience of Russian politics but on an expert knowledge of Slavonic philology. Little Russian personal names, however (but not place-names), are written in this book in the Ukranian form: for example, Hrushevsky, not Grushevsky. The case of Polish is more difficult. To transliterate a language using the Latin alphabet, to write, for example, 'Wuj' or 'Woodge' for 'L¢dź,' seems in the nature of a linguistic imperti- nence. On the other hand, it is useless to expect English and American readers to acquire a knowledge of the forty-six Polish letters and double-letters. The average reader ignores all strange-looking diacritical marks . . .

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