Intelligence and Personality: Bridging the Gap in Theory and Measurement

Intelligence and Personality: Bridging the Gap in Theory and Measurement

Intelligence and Personality: Bridging the Gap in Theory and Measurement

Intelligence and Personality: Bridging the Gap in Theory and Measurement

Synopsis

This volume brings together leading researchers in a major new effort to bridge the historical gap between the domains of ability and personality. The result is a remarkable collection of chapters analyzing critical issues at the interface--style, structure, process, and context. Contributors address: * intelligence and its relation to temperament and character-hierarchical models of cognition and personality; judgmental data in personality research; and structural issues in ability and personality; * intelligence and conation-goal theories; the role of conation in the learning environment; motivation and arousal; * intelligence and style-stylistic preferences; the role of disposition; cognitive style and its measurement; test taking style; and * intelligence and personality in context-regularities of functioning; contextual effects in cultural variation; control and consistency; the concept of "successful intelligence."

Excerpt

This volume emanates from the second in a series of symposia entitled the Spearman Seminars. the idea was conceived by Sidney Irvine in 1993, when the first Spearman Seminar took place in Plymouth, England, and gave rise to the book Human Abilities: Their Nature and Measurement. the contributors were some of the most outstanding researchers in the field of ability measurement and several of them were invited to return to Plymouth in 1997 to contribute to the next seminar and to the production of this book. the theme for the second meeting was deliberately chosen to broaden into issues of personality as well as ability, but more important to attempt to bridge the historical divide between these two domains. Leading contributors from Europe, North America, and the Middle East have attempted to address these issues, and the result is a remarkable collection of work that embraces the interfaces of intelligence and personality: style, structure, process, and context.

Part I: intelligence in relation to temperament
and character

In the opening chapter, Jensen commends the importance of a dual approach to the study of intelligence; both psychometric and factor analytic approaches (which emphasize individual differences) and experimental approaches (which stress common designs, features, and functions of the brain) are crucial to the understanding of intelligence. He discusses what he terms Spearman's hypothesis — an observation made by Spearman that the size of group differences between White and Black subjects on different tests is a function of the g loading of each test. Jensen reports several tests of Spearman's hypothesis by exploring the relationship between g loadings and standardized White-Black differences, resulting in significant correlations that are not diminished when controlling for socioeconomic status and that appear in both standard psychometric tests and elementary cognitive tests. Gustafsson provides a comprehensive discussion of several hierarchical models of cognition and personality with their accompanying theories, examining in particular bottom-up and top-down . . .

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