Land Privatization in Mexico: Urbanization, Formation of Regions, and Globalization in Ejidos

Land Privatization in Mexico: Urbanization, Formation of Regions, and Globalization in Ejidos

Land Privatization in Mexico: Urbanization, Formation of Regions, and Globalization in Ejidos

Land Privatization in Mexico: Urbanization, Formation of Regions, and Globalization in Ejidos

Synopsis

This book analyzes [ejido] land as space of urbanization and location of economic activities and capital and land privatization as a redistributive process with local, urban, regional and global consequences.

Excerpt

In the 1990s, widespread deregulation and privatization were the processes that pervaded most economies in the so-called Third World, and Mexico was not an exception. Deregulation and privatization became the messianic recipes that would resolve the inadequacies of underdevelopment and its fiscal hurdles. Supposedly, these policies would bring democracy and efficiency to the economies adopting them. Deregulation and privatization became the policies that supranational institutions exerted as part of their economic restructuring programs to be applied around the world. Within this context, in 1992, the Reforms to Article 27, or Ejido Reforms, were some of the many economic restructuring policies carried out in Mexico. These reforms would deregulate ejido lands, permit their privatization, and open them for investment.

The original Article 27 was the constitutional legislation that regulated land and its redistribution from the end of the 1910 Revolution until 1992, when the Reforms were approved. These Reforms amounted to a counteragrarian reform and meant for many a further wave of land privatization in Mexico. Such a dramatic reversal triggered a rainfall of questions about the fate of lands in Mexico, the impact of the new legislation on the wellbeing of the communities inhabiting those lands, and the implications of the Reforms at the local, urban, regional, and global levels. Those inquiries about the ejido, the meaning of its transformation, its deregulation and privatization, and its impact on communities were the initial issues that prompted this research.

This chapter introduces the organization of the research developed to find answers to those initial questions. It discusses the elements of both the original and reformed Article 27 and the theoretical framework used to approach this study. It also presents the hypotheses that directed this research, summarizes the chapters that sustain the case studies included in this book, and explains the criteria used to select those cases. Finally, it presents an

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