The Geography of Tourism and Recreation: Environment, Place, and Space

The Geography of Tourism and Recreation: Environment, Place, and Space

The Geography of Tourism and Recreation: Environment, Place, and Space

The Geography of Tourism and Recreation: Environment, Place, and Space

Synopsis

The fully updated second edition of The Geography of Tourism and Recreation continues to be a comprehensive and accessible introduction to tourism, leisure and recreation. Each chapter offers a distinctive series of insights into how the geographer has approached the analysis of tourism and recreation and, amongst other things, explores:* the demand for recreation and tourism* the supply of recreation and tourism* the impacts of recreation and tourism* recreation and tourism in urban, rural and coastal environments* recreation and tourism in wilderness areas and National Parks* recreation and tourism policy and planning* the future of recreation and tourism and the role of geography in applied research.Summary points and questions are included to encourage discussion among readers.The text is well illustrated with plates, maps , diagrams and new case-studies, to highlight international examples that address key concepts and issues in tourism and recreation research.

Excerpt

Understanding why human beings engage in recreational and tourism activities is an increasingly important and complex area of research for social scientists. Historically, geographers have played only a limited part in developing the literature on the behavioural aspects of recreational and tourists' use of free time (Jackson 1988), tending to have a predisposition towards the analysis of aggregate patterns of demand using quantitative measures and statistical sources. This almost rigid demarcation of research activity has, with a few exceptions (e.g. Goodall 1990; Mansfeld 1992), meant that behavioural research in recreation and tourism has only recently made any impact on the wider research community (see e.g. Walmesley and Lewis (1993) on the geographer's approach to behavioural research), with notable studies (e.g. Walmesley and Jenkins 1992; Jenkins and Walmesley 1993) applying spatial principles to the analysis of recreational and tourism behaviour.

Within the recreational literature, the geographers' contributions have often been subsumed into social science perspectives, such as sociology, psychology and planning, so that the spatiality and placefulness of their contribution has been implicit rather than explicit. For this reason, this chapter discusses some of the key behavioural issues associated with recreation and tourism demand followed by an analysis of the major data sources which researchers use, emphasising how the geographer has used and manipulated them to identify the patterns, processes and implications of such activity.

Within the literature on recreation and tourism, there is a growing unease over the physical separation of the theoretical and conceptual research that isolates behavioural processes and spatial outcomes, and fails to derive generalisations applicable to understanding tourism in totality (see Chapter 1). According to Moore et al. (1995:74) there are common strands in the 'relationships between the various motivating factors applicable to both leisure and tourism'; and as Leiper (1990) argued, tourism represents a valued category of leisure, where there is a degree of commonality between the factors motivating both tourist and recreational activities and many of the needs, such as relaxation or being with friends, can equally be fulfilled in a recreational or tourism context. Although there is some merit in Leiper's (1990) approach, grouping leisure into one amorphous category assumes that there are no undifferentiated attributes which distinguish tourism from leisure. As Pigram and Jenkins (1999:19) confirm, 'the term recreation demand is generally equated with an individual(s) preferences or desires, whether or not the individual has the economic and other resources necessary for their satisfaction'. In this respect, it is the preference-aspiratio-desire level, reflected in behaviour or participation in activities. It is interesting to note that Leiper's (1990) approach has a great deal of validity if one recognises that some tourism motivations may in fact differentiate tourism from leisure experiences, just as the reverse may be true, and that ultimately the particular range of motives associated with a tourism or recreational activity will be unique in each case despite a range of similarities. For this reason, the following discussion examines

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