Test Scoring

Test Scoring

Test Scoring

Test Scoring

Synopsis

Test Scoring provides a summary of traditional true score test theory and modern item response theory related to scoring tests, as well as novel developments resulting from the integration of these approaches. The background material introduced in the first four chapters builds a foundation for the new developments covered in later chapters. These new methods offer alternative psychometric approaches to scoring complex assessments. Each of the book's contributors draws from the classic literature of traditional test theory, as well as psychometric developments of the past decade. The emphasis is on large-scale educational measurement but the topics and procedures may be applied broadly within many measurement contexts. Numerous graphs and illustrative examples based on real tests and actual data are integrated throughout. This multi-authored volume shows the reader how to combine the coded outcomes on individual test items into a numerical summary about the examinee's performance. This book is intended for researchers and students in education and other social sciences interested in educational assessment and policy, the design and development of tests, and the procedures for test administration and scoring. Prerequisites include an introduction to educational and psychological measurement and basic statistics. Knowledge of differential and integral calculus and matrix algebra is helpful but not required.

Excerpt

At the threshold of the 21st century, educational and psychological tests and their scores hold a more prominent place in society than ever before. Tests are taking an increasingly important place in education and educational policy. Students take more tests, and the consequences associated with the scores are associated with higher stakes: a majority of U.S. states have, or are considering, statewide tests that are part of promotion or graduation decisions. Results obtained from the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) guide educational policy at the national level, and results from statewide assessments similarly support policy decisions at the state and local levels. Increasing emphasis on tests and their scores may also be observed in many other countries.

Although these educational uses of testing may be most visible in the media, other uses of psychological testing are on the increase as well. For example, in recent years results obtained with psychological tests and questionnaires have become the primary outcome measures in many medical trials, as drugs are designed whose purpose is an improvement in the quality of life. As another example, certification tests are required for entry to an increasing number of occupations and careers. As a single illustration, the assessments that certify computer professionals have grown in just a few years from nonexistence to become some of the largest volume testing programs in the world.

With the increasing use of tests comes greater complexity in their scoring: Large-scale tests often require multiple test forms for which scores must be reported in a comparable way. Some computerized adaptive tests (CATs) may be the ultimate in tests with multiple forms; CATs may be designed . . .

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