The Frankfurt School on Religion: Key Writings by the Major Thinkers

The Frankfurt School on Religion: Key Writings by the Major Thinkers

The Frankfurt School on Religion: Key Writings by the Major Thinkers

The Frankfurt School on Religion: Key Writings by the Major Thinkers


Introduction1. Ernst BlochOn the Original History of the Third ReichNot Hades, but Heaven on EarthHunger, "Something in a Dream"God of Hope, Thing-For-UsMarx and the End of Alienation2. Erich FrommThe Dogma of Christ3. Leo L¿wenthalThe Demonic: Project for a Negative Philosophy of Religion4. Herbert MarcuseLuther, Calvin, Kant5. Theodor AdornoReason and SacrificeReason and RevelationMeditations on Metaphysics6. Max HorkheimerTheism and AtheismThe Jews and EuropeReligion and PhilosophyObservations on the Liberalization of Religion7. Walter BenjaminCapitalism and ReligionTheological-Political FragmentTheses on the Philosophy of History8. Johann Baptiste MetzProductive NoncontemporaneityAnamnestic Reason: A Theologian's Remarks on the Crisis of the Geisteswisesnschaften9. Jurgen HabermasTranscendence from Within, Transcendence in this WorldFaith and Knowledge10. Helmut PeukertEnlightenment and Theology as Unfinished Projects11. Edmund ArensReligion as Ritual, Communicative, and Critical Praxis


Ernst Bloch

Translated by Neville and Stephen Plaice

Every Now is already differently there tomorrow. It is even possible that misery subsides a little. Then a lot of ordinary people stop running with the pack. They return to that centre which can be one for them anew. The mere shallow yesterday which they are and have intended begins again.

But this calm, if it comes, hardly lasts for a long time. The recuperation is likely to be short, and certainly no longer as unquestionable as the earlier ones. A sting is left behind, both of insecurity and of former baiting and degeneration. What is now already clearly changing is also less the misery than the trust in Hitler. His enormous credit is slowly crumbling away creditors and the credulous are grumbling, the payday has been missed too often. Perhaps “disillusioned” SA proletarians and also younger sections of a proletarianized and utopianized petite bourgeoisie are becoming ripe for Communism. But the non-contemporaneous contents of this stratum, which have been indicated here, have thereby not yet become inoperative themselves, of course.

Against these the red remedy is only halfway effective, or mostly not at all as yet. Nazis speak deceitfully but to people, the Communists quite truly but only of things. The Communists often also flog slogans to death, but many from which the alcohol has long since disappeared and which are merely schematic. Or they bring their most correct figures, examinations and registered entries to those who are stultified with nothing but figures, registered entries, office and dry work all day long, and are thus subjectively weary of the entire “business world.” Here linguistic and propagandist reform are the needs of the moment:

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