In the Introduction to Psychology in the Soviet Union (1957) it was noted that the project of publishing translations of papers by Soviet psychologists originally arose from an interest in the educational ap-plications of research. In fact a more general survey resulted because, in the absence of some knowledge of present trends in psychology in the U.S.S.R.-and this was the first book of its kind-work in educational psychology could neither be adequately presented nor assessed. During the past five years the position has considerably changed. The number of books and articles available in English has grown and more translations are in preparation here and in the United States. It is possible, therefore, to take for granted a knowledge of the general framework of Soviet psychology and to confine a selection to papers with a direct bearing on education.
The nature of educational developments in the Soviet Union is now well known, particularly the emphasis on intellectual development and learning within what is basically a non-streamed common school system. Less well known, however, is the psychological outlook which informs the whole system of education and the nature of research into the learning process which has undoubtedly contributed towards successful educational expansion. Material bearing on this question has appeared in various symposia but there has as yet been no general picture of the scope of Soviet educational psychology, the methods of work in this field and the steps made towards formulating a coherent
e.g., A.R. Luria, Speech and the Development of Mental Processes in the Child, ed. Joan Simon (London, 1959), and The Role of Speech in the Regulation of Normal and Abnormal Behaviour, ed. J. Tizard (London, 1961); and the symposium Recent Soviet Psychology, ed. Neil O'Connor (London, 1962). In the United States three volumes have been published by the Josiah Macy Foundation under the general title The Central Nervous System and Behaviour, ed. M.A.B. Brazier (1959, 1960, 1961); these bear chiefly on neurophysiology and include papers by A.R. Luria, E.N. Sokolov and others. There has been a reprint of A.R. Luria, The Nature of Human Conflicts (New York, 1960) and papers read at a conference on psychotherapy held in Moscow in 1956 have been published, Psychotherapy in the Soviet Union, ed. R. Winn (New York, 1960; London, 1962). The most recent review of other translations, and of some of the Russian literature, is by Josef Brozek, Annual Review of Psychology, Vol. 13, 1962, with bibliography.