Anxiety Disorders Comorbid with Depression: Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia

Anxiety Disorders Comorbid with Depression: Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia

Anxiety Disorders Comorbid with Depression: Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia

Anxiety Disorders Comorbid with Depression: Panic Disorder and Agoraphobia

Synopsis

In clinical practice, complex patients with comorbidity of mood and anxiety disorders are arguably the norm. These volumes focus on this area, providing up-to-date reviews of the conceptual issues that confront the clinician when evaluating these patients Concise and easy-to-read, they also present a practical approach to the management and treatment of patients with comorbid mood and anxiety disorders.

Excerpt

It has been argued that the recognition of anxiety disorders in the early nineteenth century can be seen in the context of the reduced level of threat in society in general. It was only in the affluent and more predictable conditions of the industrial developed world that these symptoms can be seen as an abnormal response to a relatively unthreatening world. In these less threatening conditions, the minority who experience ongoing nervousness and paroxysmal anxiety attacks were then identified as worthy of treatment. Before that, anxiety had not been perceived as a mental illness in its own right, rather more as a social stress and a possible cause of mental illness (Berrios and Link 1995).

Anxiety symptoms throughout the nineteenth and into the first half of the twentieth centuries were often described within the medical model on an individual basis, related to their presentation (Da Costa described irritable heart, Lewis effort syndrome and Oppenheimer the neurocirculatory syndrome). Westphal also incorrectly used the medical model to explain 'platzschwindel', which has since been renamed agoraphobia. He mistakenly identified this inability to cross open spaces unaccompanied as an abnormality of the sense of balance resulting from inner-ear pathology. Later, Legrand du Saulle refined this concept by

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