Encyclopedia of Tourism

Encyclopedia of Tourism

Encyclopedia of Tourism

Encyclopedia of Tourism


This book comprises over one thousand entries and has been written by an international team of more than three hundred contributors to provide a comprehensive guide to both the manifest and hidden dimensions of tourism. The Encyclopedia explicates and explores the wide range of basic definitions, concepts, perspectives and institutions embraced by tourism, and consolidates research carried out in the field to date. Reflecting the multidisciplinary nature of academic exploration within Tourism, the entries embrace areas of study such as Anthropology, Economics, Education, Geography, History, Management, Marketing, Political Science and Psychology, among others.


The purpose of this encyclopedia is to act as a quick reference source or guide to the wide range of basic definitions, concepts, themes, issues, methods, perspectives and institutions embraced by tourism in its disparate manifestations. The volume is designed to represent its multidisciplinary scope, nature, composition, and transformation; to facilitate research, education, consultancy and practical inquiries; and/or to act as a starting point for both wide-ranging and specialised explorations in this ubiquitous phenomenon, which is now the world's largest industry. This reference book, like those in its genre, as will be noted shortly, has succeeded in meeting some of its goals but remains unfulfilled in others.

The original aim at fulfilment, the beginning, is one of the most problematic aspects of any new project, especially an unprecedented one. So it was with the development and production of this Encyclopedia of Tourism, as it started its journey into the landscape of knowledge, with no models to choose from and no blue prints to follow: travelling uncharted terrains, crossing unbridged passes, falling into unmarked canyons, finding unattended niches, and even discovering virgin lands and meeting other fellow backpackers and explorers. Almost every move-situated between the starting point of this searching journey and its finishing line-suggests a long tale, to be merely summarised here. But first should come the exploratory context which gave rise to this academic expedition.

The scientification of tourism

As a field of study evolves toward maturity, new informed measures, which denote successive progression and signal desired transition, are introduced and pursued: towards promising goals which potentially advance the body of knowledge to new frontiers. An overview of such cumulative strides in tourism would illustrate this unfolding scientification journey in general and its coming of age. To this point, mention of many developments would fit the occasion. But only three are cited here, and all are among those with which this writer is most familiar, from their origins onward.

The scientification process, for the purpose of this introduction, may begin with the 1960s, when tourism eventually graduated from its economically-driven phase (concerned solely with real or perceived monetary returns). With this transformation, the time had come to create new pathways toward the inclusive picture of this knowledge area. It seemed reasonable that, as the vista broadened, the move would help uncover its hidden dimensions, especially its sociocultural structure which had remained buried and thus least understood earlier on. At about this juncture, a new journal saw its debut, with no commitments to the tourism industry as such and to the already-surfaced and well-polished economic pillars. The first issue of Annals of Tourism Research: A Social Sciences Journal appeared in 1973. With its take-off, another augmenting academic gateway was burst open, a cornerstone was installed, and suddenly a small yet directed journey into the far-stretching landscape was on its way.

To reach its scholarly purpose-of being 'ultimately dedicated to developing theoretical constructs…[in order]…to expand frontiers of knowledge in tourism'-Annals continued with a long and challenging expedition, moving along its . . .

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