Europe Undivided: Democracy, Leverage, and Integration after Communism

Europe Undivided: Democracy, Leverage, and Integration after Communism

Europe Undivided: Democracy, Leverage, and Integration after Communism

Europe Undivided: Democracy, Leverage, and Integration after Communism

Synopsis

Europe Undivided analyzes how an enlarging EU has facilitated a convergence toward liberal democracy among credible future members of the EU in Central and Eastern Europe. It reveals how variations in domestic competition put democratizing states on different political trajectories after1989, and how the EU's leverage eventually influenced domestic politics in liberal and particularly illiberal democracies. In doing so, Europe Undivided illuminates the changing dynamics of the relationship between the EU and candidate states from 1989 to 2004, and challenges policymakers to manageand improve EU leverage to support democracy, ethnic tolerance, and economic reform in other candidates and proto-candidates such as the Western Balkan states, Turkey, and Ukraine. Albeit not by design, the most powerful and successful tool of EU foreign policy has turned out to be EU enlargement -and this book helps us understand why, and how, it works.

Excerpt

The division of Europe shaped profoundly the lives of my parents, who were born in interwar Czechoslovakia and came of age just before and during the Second World War. The communist coup in 1948 ended their hopes of living in a (social) democratic Czechoslovakia and hobbled their careers as academics and artists. The Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia in 1968 caught them unawares during a camping trip to the United States from which they would never return home. I have been much more fortunate as I have witnessed over the last fifteen years the end of the division of Europe. As communism unraveled in 1989 I became interested in how East European countries would transform themselves, how West European countries and institutions would respond, and whether the long-standing division of Europe could be overcome. I am deeply grateful to my parents for giving me the intellectual tools to carry out this work. I am also indebted to the Overlake Rotary Club in Washington state for my schooling at a lycee in France, and to Stanford University for its commitment to study abroad and undergraduate research. As an undergraduate at Stanford, I spent that glorious year of 1989 first in the Washington DC program, then in the Paris program, and finally conducting research in Prague. I owe a very special thanks to my senior honors thesis advisor David Holloway who supervised my undergraduate thesis on Czechoslovakia's new foreign policy, and who has generously supported my academic work ever since.

This book began as a D. Phil. dissertation at St. Antony's College at the University of Oxford. The British Marshall Commission funded my studies in the United Kingdom at a time when this suited beautifully my agenda of understanding different perspectives on a dynamic, rapidly changing Europe. The Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard University provided a pre-doctoral fellowship that helped me complete the dissertation. At Oxford I was advised by Alex Pravda and aided in my research by Timothy Garton Ash as well as Anne Deighton and William Wallace. For comments on the book at different stages I am indebted to my Oxford examiners Andrew Hurrell and George Kolankiewicz as well as Michael Doyle, Grzegorz Ekiert, Thomas Ertman, Matthew Evangelista, Judith Kelley, Karen Ferree, Peter Hall, Stephen Holmes, Tony Judt, Andrew Moravcsik, Martin Rhodes, Thomas Risse, Richard Rose, Glenda Rosenthal, Philippe Schmitter, Thomas W. Simons Jr., Timothy Snyder, Stephen Van Evera, and Jan Zielonka. I have thanked many others in the footnotes. I could never have written the book without the input of the many individuals that I interviewed and asked for assistance in East Central

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