The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy

The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy

The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy

The Architecture of Democracy: Constitutional Design, Conflict Management, and Democracy

Synopsis

Reynolds brings together the leading scholars to discuss the successes and failures of constitutional design. Arend Lijphart and Donald Horowitz debate their own contributions to the field. Emerging scholars then present important new evidence from Europe, the CIS, Latin America, and Africa. Chapters analyse the effect of presidential and parliamentary systems, issues of federalism and autonomy, and the varying impact of electoral systems. The book concludes with case studies of Fiji, Ireland, Eritrea, Indonesia, Nigeria, and India. The Architecture of Democracy is the culmination ofthe study of constitutional engineering in the third wave of democracy and sets parameters for this crucial research as democracy diffuses across the world.

Excerpt

This book was born out of an enjoyable gathering of over 100 academics and practitioners in the electoral and constitutional field at the University of Notre Dame in December 1999. That conference was in turn the spin-off of a personal wish I had had a few years earlier. Since 1991 I had spent most of my professional life immersed in the study of elections and constitutions in emerging democracies. After the dramatic growth of that field, which came along with the third wave of democratization, I wanted to set up a group photograph of the most influential and articulate protagonists in the discipline: my own mentors, and the scholars who had actually penned the books which I had spent so much time poring over. I also wanted to gather together the new wave of scholars in the field who were doing both cutting-edge quantitative work and sophisticated social science studies of the relationships between institutional design and democratic endurance. The photograph, which appears on page vi and is the real reason for this book, doesn't include everyone I had hoped for. Robert Dahl and Matthew Shugart were unavoidably occupied, Larry Diamond was—unusually—travelling, and Notre Dame's own Guillermo O'Donnell was being honoured at the inauguration of the new Argentinian president: a more than reasonable excuse. But what is remarkable about the photograph—and the conference itself—is how many of the icons of the field were on the stage. Arend Lijphart and Donald Horowitz were mischievously set up as the two opposing team captains and played their roles with grace and aplomb. Alongside them Giovanni Sartori, Juan Linz, Al Stepan, Dieter Nohlen, Bernie Grofman, Rein Taagepera, and Scott Mainwaring brought a huge weight of innovative inquiry and practical experience to the proceedings. Brendan O'Leary, Pippa Norris, Brij Lal, Cheryl Saunders, Nigel Roberts, René Antonio Mayorga, Vincent Maphai, Bereket Selassie, Jørgen Elklit, Bill Liddle, and Ruth Lapidoth came from far and wide, representing the collected wisdom of five continents. Then there were the Young Turks: the East European troika of Shvetsova, Solnick, and Frye; the Latin American foursome of Carey, Coppedge, Chiebub, and Levitsky; and the 'rest of the world' team of Varshney, Suberu, and Stuligross. Finally, we were joined by representatives of the practitioners who

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