Lifestyle Modification for the Prevention and Treatment of Hypertension

Lifestyle Modification for the Prevention and Treatment of Hypertension

Lifestyle Modification for the Prevention and Treatment of Hypertension

Lifestyle Modification for the Prevention and Treatment of Hypertension

Excerpt

Hypertension is an important public health challenge in the world because of its high prevalence and the concomitant increase in risk of cardiovascularrenal disease. In the United States and other economically developed countries, hypertension represents a major health and financial burden. For example, as many as 43 million Americans have hypertension, defined as having a systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg and/or taking antihypertensive medications. According to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association, in 2003 the estimated direct health expenditures (physician or other health care provider visits, hospital/nursing home stays, and antihypertensive medications) for care of patients with hypertension in the United States were $37.2 billion and the associated indirect costs (lost productivity due to morbidity and mortality) were $13.1 billion. In many economically develop-ing countries, hypertension has become a significant cause of mortality and disability. In the People's Republic of China the estimated number of hyper-tensive cases has increased from 30 million in the 1960s to 94 million in the 1990s. Similar trends have been shown in other developing regions.

Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease, stroke, congestive heart failure, end-stage renal disease, and . . .

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