This work has received invaluable stimulus and support from two foundations. In the United Kingdom, the Nuffield Foundation made me a grant that provided me with essential research assistance. I am grateful to Nuffield College, Oxford, for undertaking the administration of this grant. In the United States, the University of California at Berkeley, in honouring me with an invitation to deliver its Hitchcock Lectures in 1974, led me to develop for the first time as a connected argument the thoughts that have since been expanded into the present book. My visit to Berkeley, moreover, enabled me to strengthen my association with the Director of its Institute of Industrial Relations, Lloyd Ulman, and to draw upon his wide knowledge of the world of labour and lively insights into its workings.
It was my good fortune to engage as my research associate Imogen (Lisa) King, whose imaginative yet rigorous mind, eye for essentials, and lively interest in the issues we discussed made our collaboration highly productive: the handling of sociological and psychological materials in Chapters 4 , and 7 benefited from it in particular.
Especially also am I grateful to those who gave freely of their time to read my script in part or whole, and comment upon it with a care that has enabled me to improve it at many points—Jan Adam, Anthony Heath, Richard Layard, James Meade, Jim Pemberton, and Paul Taubman—to all of whom I pay tribute while absolving them of all responsibility for any remaining errors.
In a wide-ranging inquiry the guidance of specialists is indispensable. It has been given to me with a helpfulness that makes my present acknowledgement quite inadequate, but I ask the reader who finds interest in the materials of this book to bear in mind the scholars who have contributed to them. I also beg those scholars themselves to forgive a merely summary statement as I now record my indebtedness to Jan Adam, W. Brus, and J. M. Michal, for data and discussion concerning the Soviet-type economies; Phoebe Allen of the Oxford University Press, for many corrections and helpful suggestions; John Bowlby, for guidance in ethology; Janet Chapman, for her analysis of the Russian pay structure; John Creedy, for his studies of lifetime earnings; Pieter de Wolff, for his analysis of the variance of individual earnings; H. M. Douty, for guidance in the statistics of the U.S. labour market, and discussion of its workings; John Goldthorpe and Keith Hope, for patient explanation of their scale of social standing and the method of their inquiry into social mobility; Emile Primorac, for Yugoslav data; R. J. H. Russell, for critique of the Weber-Fechner law; J. E. Shatil and Zvi Sussman, for information about the Kibbutzim and egalitarianism in Israel; and A. R. Thatcher, for discussion of the form of the