Thinking in Education

Thinking in Education

Thinking in Education

Thinking in Education


The first edition of Thinking in Education made a case for inserting thinking into all levels of education by infusing critical thinking into existing disciplines. Matthew Lipman, a leading education theorist, provided procedures to enable students at all levels of education to become more thoughtful, more reasonable, and more judicious. In the 12 years since the first edition was published, the author has broadened his approach to teaching thinking. While critical thinking is important and highly valuable, it is not sufficient; students must develop creative and caring thinking as well. This edition provides methods for integrating emotive experience, mental acts, thinking skills and informal fallacies into a concerted approach to the improvement of reasoning and judgment. It also shows how the community of inquiry can be utilized for the reduction of violence in the classroom and for the improvement of the education of children at risk.


I am grateful to the students and visiting scholars who have read and commented on various sections of this work at a number of stages of its development. Their criticisms were very helpful and resulted in numerous improvements in what was, in my opinion, a manuscript with many difficulties. I want to express my appreciation to Samantha Spitaletta, from the Office of Publications at Montclair State University, for her contribution to the preparation of the artwork. I also want to express my gratitude to Manuela Gómez for her help in developing this manuscript so as to fit the enlarged outlook of the second edition onto the foundation represented by the first edition. If the result turns out to be successful, no small part of the credit should be given to her; I am alone responsible for the shortcomings that remain. Likewise, I am indebted to Joanne Matkowski, who lavished care on the manuscript through each of its various incarnations.

I am also grateful for permission to reprint my following articles:

To Venant Cauchy, “Educating for Violence Reduction and Peace Development, ” in Venant Cauchy (ed.), Violence and Human Coexistence, vol. 2 (Montréal: Éditions Montmorency, 1994), pp. 363—78.

To Thea Jelcich Zanfabro, “Thinking Skills Fostered by Philosophy for Children, ” in Judith W. Segal, Susan F. Chipman, and Robert Glaser (eds.), Thinking and Learning Skills, vol. 1, Relating Instruction . . .

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