Historical Dictionary of Law Enforcement

Historical Dictionary of Law Enforcement

Historical Dictionary of Law Enforcement

Historical Dictionary of Law Enforcement

Excerpt

Historians generally acknowledge that modern professional policing began with the creation of the London Metropolitan Police model in 1829. Indeed, much of this book is devoted to British policing and its antecedents in the British Isles, dating back to the sheriffs and constables of the eleventh century. However, police organizations and law enforcement entities have been in existence since classical antiquity. The earliest accounts of organized policing can be traced as far back as Caesar Augustus's Vigiles, Praetorian Guards, and Urban Cohorts. Until the eighteenth century, such military and paramilitary police forces were the general rule rather than the exception. Since that time, however, European Continental police innovations stemming from Napoleonic France have had a dramatic impact on the development of centralized state policing throughout the world. These developments and hundreds of others are chronicled in this historical dictionary on law enforcement around the world.

While there are a handful of reference books covering the history of policing, they are usually parochial in approach, dealing with specific countries or continental traditions. This book is designed to fill this void by providing a reference work that views policing from an international vantage point. One of the weaknesses of existing reference works on criminal justice is that many authors attempt to tell both sides of the story in one volume, as in the “encyclopedia of lawmen and outlaws” genre or those devoted to “cops and robbers.” On the other hand, this book is devoted solely to the discipline of policing.

Several guidelines have been followed in preparing the more than nine hundred entries contained in this volume. Biographical entries were selected with police experience in mind. This could include a supervisory capacity without actual field work, as in the cases of FBI directors and police officials such as Theodore Roosevelt. While policy mavens, criminologists confined to labo-

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