Cautious Crusade: Franklin D. Roosevelt, American Public Opinion, and the War against Nazi Germany

Cautious Crusade: Franklin D. Roosevelt, American Public Opinion, and the War against Nazi Germany

Cautious Crusade: Franklin D. Roosevelt, American Public Opinion, and the War against Nazi Germany

Cautious Crusade: Franklin D. Roosevelt, American Public Opinion, and the War against Nazi Germany

Synopsis

America's struggle against Nazism is one of the few aspects of World War II that has escaped controversy. Historians agree that it was a widely popular war, different from the subsequent conflicts in Korea and Vietnam because of the absence of partisan sniping, ebbing morale, or calls for a negotiated peace.
In this provocative book, Steven Casey challenges conventional wisdom about America's participation in World War II. Drawing on the numerous opinion polls and surveys conducted by the U. S. government, he traces the development of elite and mass attitudes toward Germany, from the early days of the war up to its conclusion. Casey persuasively argues that the president and the public rarely saw eye to eye on the nature of the enemy, the threat it posed, or the best methods for countering it. He describes the extensive propaganda campaign that Roosevelt designed to build support for the war effort, and shows that Roosevelt had to take public opinion into account when formulating a host of policies, from the Allied bombing campaign to the Morgenthau plan to pastoralize the Third Reich.
By examining the previously unrecognized relationship between public opinion and policy making during World War II, Casey's groundbreaking book sheds new light on a crucial era in American history.

Excerpt

But if history teaches us anything, it is that we must resist aggres
sion or it will destroy our freedoms. Appeasement does not work.
As was the case in the 1930s, we see in Saddam Hussein an ag
gressive dictator threatening neighbors.

—President George Bush, August 8, 1990

What if someone had listened to Winston Churchill and stood up
to Adolf Hitler earlier? How many peoples' lives might have been
saved, and how many American lives might have been saved?

—President Bill Clinton, March 23, 1999

More than fifty years after the collapse of the Third Reich, America's crusade against nazism still exerts a powerful hold over the popular imagination. Not only do books, films, and tv documentaries on the subject continue to proliferate, but politicians, recognizing the resonance that this era still possesses, remain quick to compare every threat to U.S. security in terms of the danger posed by nazism in the 1930s and 1940s. So in their time, Stalin, Ho Chi Minh, Saddam Hussein, and Slobodan Milosevic have all been depicted as the new Adolf Hitler, no doubt in the hope that if the public equated them with this archetype of evil then they would both understand the nature of the enemy and rally behind the administration's calls for an energetic response.

Implicit in this harking back to World War II is the notion that America's crusade against nazism was a uniquely popular war—that, unlike the subsequent conflicts in Korea and Vietnam, on this occasion the populace was united behind the government, doggedly determined to eradicate an undeniably expansionist and barbarous foe. Such a conception is endorsed by historians in numerous works, both scholarly and popular. According . . .

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