To Be Suddenly White: Literary Realism and Racial Passing

To Be Suddenly White: Literary Realism and Racial Passing

To Be Suddenly White: Literary Realism and Racial Passing

To Be Suddenly White: Literary Realism and Racial Passing

Synopsis

To Be Suddenly White explores the troubled relationship between literary passing and literary realism, the dominant aesthetic motivation behind the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth-century ethnic texts considered in this study. Steven J. Belluscio uses the passing narrative to provide insight into how the representation of ethnic and racial subjectivity served, in part, to counter dominant narratives of difference. To Be Suddenly White offers new readings of traditional passing narratives from the African American literary tradition, such as James Weldon Johnson's The Autobiography of an Ex-Coloured Man, Nella Larsen's Passing, and George Schuyler's Black No More. It is also the first full-length work to consider a number of Jewish American and Italian American prose texts, such as Mary Antin's The Promised Land, Anzia Yezierska's Bread Givers, and Guido d'Agostino's Olives on the Apple Tree, as racial passing narratives in their own right. Belluscio also demonstrates the contradictions that result from the passing narrative's exploration of racial subjectivity, racial difference, and race itself. When they are seen in comparison, ideological differences begin to emerge between African American passing narratives and “white ethnic” (Jewish American and Italian American) passing narratives. According to Belluscio, the former are more likely to engage in a direct critique of ideas of race, while the latter have a tendency to become more simplistic acculturation narratives in which a character moves from a position of ethnic difference to one of full American identity. The desire “to be suddenly white” serves as a continual point of reference for Belluscio, enabling him to analyze how writers, even when overtly aware of the problematic nature of race (especially African American writers), are also aware of the conditions it creates, the transformations it provokes, and the consequences of both. Byexamining the content and context of these works, Belluscio elucidates their engagement with discourses of racial and ethnic differences, assimilation, passing, and identity, an approach that has profound implications for the understanding of American literary history.

Excerpt

In many ways, American literary history traces a continual narrative of the relationship between dominant and marginal groups in colonial America and the United States. American subgenres as diverse as colonial histories, slave narratives, immigrant autobiographies, and African American literature deal willy-nilly with infinite variations on this perennially relevant theme, the seemingly impermeable divide it suggests, and the means by which this divide can be advantageously manipulated, even violated. the passing narrative is no exception, as it involves an extreme example of crossing the boundary that separates dominant and marginal cultural, racial, and/or ethnic groups—usually with the purpose of "shed"ding" the identity of an oppressed group to gain access to social and economic opportunities."

Passing has traditionally been treated as an exclusively African American phenomenon; however, such a conception relies upon a generally reductive but long-enduring definition such as the one found in Gunnar Myrdal's An American Dilemma: the Negro Problem and Modern Democracy (1944), in which ""f"or all practical purposes 'passing' means that a Negro becomes a white man, that is, moves from the lower to the higher caste." Since passing is typically viewed by scholars as centered around a black/white racial binary, critics have tended to locate literary passing

1. Elaine K. Ginsberg, "Introduction: the Politics of Passing," 3. in this study,
"ethnic American" is generally used as an umbrella term for all culturally marginal
persons.

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