Citizenship Status, Race, Ethnicity, and Their Effects on Sentencing

Citizenship Status, Race, Ethnicity, and Their Effects on Sentencing

Citizenship Status, Race, Ethnicity, and Their Effects on Sentencing

Citizenship Status, Race, Ethnicity, and Their Effects on Sentencing

Synopsis

Wu examines the independent effect of citizenship status and its joint effect with race/ethnicity, national origin, and geographic locations on sentencing outcomes. He studies the between-group relationship in terms of citizenship status and conflict theory as well as the within-group relationship in terms of race/ethnicity and typification theory. Findings reveal mixed support for theoretical propositions and research hypotheses, with stronger support for conflict theory than for typification theory. The double-disadvantage hypothesis is not supported. The findings regarding federal judges' harshness in the incarceration decision while showing leniency in the probation length and prison sentence length decisions for non-citizen offenders reflect a balance between focal concerns and the enhanced social control of conflict theory.
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