Transitions from Authoritarianism: The Role of the Bureaucracy

Transitions from Authoritarianism: The Role of the Bureaucracy

Transitions from Authoritarianism: The Role of the Bureaucracy

Transitions from Authoritarianism: The Role of the Bureaucracy

Synopsis

The field of organic electronics promises exciting new technologies based on inexpensive and mechanically flexible electronic devices, and is now seeing the beginning of commercial success. On the sidelines of this increasingly well-established field are several emerging technologies with innovative mechanisms and functions that utilize the mixed ionic/electronic conducting character of conjugated organic materials. Iontronics: Ionic Carriers in Organic Electronic Materials and Devices explores the potential of these materials, which can endow electronic devices with unique functionalities.

Fundamental science and applications

With contributions from a community of experts, the book focuses on the use of ionic functions to define the principle of operation in polymer devices. It begins by reviewing the scientific understanding and important scientific discoveries in the electrochemistry of conjugated polymers. It examines the known effects of ion incorporation, including the theory and modulation of electrochemistry in polymer films, and it explores the coupling of electronic and ionic transport in polymer films. The authors also describe applications that use this technology, including polymer electrochromic devices, artificial muscles, light-emitting electrochemical cells, and biosensors, and they discuss the fundamental technological hurdles in these areas.

The changes in materials properties and device characteristics due to ionic conductivity and electrochemical doping in electrically conductive organic materials, as well as the importance of these processes in a number of different and exciting technologies, point to a large untapped potential in the development of new applications and novel device architecture. This volume captures the state of the science in this burgeoning field.

Excerpt

Randall Baker

The democracy phenomenon

Perhaps the beginning of a new millennium is a singularly appropriate time to be writing about something as heady as “global political change.” Although, it is true, the most populous nation on earth still seems committed to Marxist rhetoric and institutions, those maintained and paid for by aggressive, homegrown capitalism. From the perspective of history, the last three decades, and particularly the 1990s, will be remarkable for the rapid, geographically extensive, and unexpectedly easy fall of authoritarian regimes on the Left and the Right. None of this was ever accurately predicted, nor really was it ever, I believe, seriously envisaged, by the institutions inside and outside the democratic world dedicated to the destruction of the other’s system, which consumed vast, and generally unaccountable, amounts of public money.

The spread of democracy, however imperfect in many places, and the retreat of capricious, authoritarian regimes is nothing short of a phenomenon. Crypto-fascists, Caudillos, Party Secretaries, and General-Secretaries have yielded to multi-party states in almost every geographical region of the world. As this is the ideological and power background to the theme of this book—the role of the Civil Service in this transition—it is worth spending some time at the outset pondering what set these forces in motion, and why now?

It seems trite to say that the retreat from authoritarianism was the result of a failure to meet the expectations of the people, but that lies at the root of the transformation. in the past, strong, arbitrary government could be justified as maintaining order in the face of some form of threat to the survival of the state or cultural integrity of the people. These threats—real or manufactured—may have come from within or from outside the state such as counter-revolutionary movements . . .

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