# The Wealth of Nature: How Mainstream Economics Has Failed the Environment

## Synopsis

Performing such functions as noise mitigation and signal conditioning, digital filters are everywhere: in your car, in your TV, in your music player, in your phone, everywhere. But an engineering degree or expensive software is not required to design and analyze them. In fact, whoever you are and whatever your background, this book will help you understand, design, analyze and use digital filters. This book was written to make digital filters more accessible to everyone. Practicing engineers will appreciate its straightforward approach and the simple formulas that readily lend themselves to real-time applications. Others will find that digital filter design and analysis is really not as difficult as they may have thought. For each IIR filter type (Butterworth, Linkwitz-Reilly, Bessel, Chebychev I & II, Variable Q, Allpass, Equalization, Notch and Shelf), the reader will find one equation for each coefficient. Plug in what you know - cutoff frequency, sample rate - and the equations will give you the coefficient values; no expensive software, transforms or complicated manipulations are needed. This approach does have its limitations. Although the book does explain how to create higher orders by combining lower orders, there are no equations for IIR filters larger than fourth order. Several FIR methods (Fourier Series and Frequency Sampling Methods) are included and they do apply to any order. Since elliptical (Cauer) IIR filters and the Remez and Parks-McClellan algorithms for equiripple FIR design require specialized software and do not lend themselves to simple formulas, they are not included. The second edition includes a new chapter on filter applications which shows you how to choose filters to perform various functions. There is also a new section on fixed point filter implementation. In addition, there are many formatting changes aimed at making the book clearer and easier to use. IIR filter equations are mathematically the same as in the first edition, but are presented in a simpler way: the common denominator equation is written only once per filter type, and the simple relationships that often exist between numerator coefficients are shown. That is, if b3 = b1, this is written, rather than repeating the full equation. As with the first edition, the book gives the simplest possible equations for the design of IIR and FIR filters and examples for their use. Nothing from the first edition has been left out.

## Excerpt

Once, during a flight from San Francisco to Washington, D.C., I observed vast numbers of trucks and milelong strings of railroad cars moving along extensive networks of highways and tracks that threaded in all directions like a circulation system in some giant organism. Products from factories and farms were moving through these arteries toward distant cities and coastal ports, while raw or processed materials were flowing in the other direction to processing and manufacturing plants. I imagined that the weblike connections between electric power plants, transformers, cables, lines, phones, radios, televisions, and computers could be compared with the spine and branches of a central nervous system, and that centers of production, distribution, and exchange could be likened to tissues and organs. I enlarged this frame in my mind’s eye to include all of the centers of production, distribution, and exchange and all of the connections between them in the global economy. This conjured up the image of a superorganism that feeds off the living system of the planet and continually extends its bodily organization and functions into every ecological niche.

I realized, of course, that the global economic system is not an organism. It is a vast network of technological products and processes that human beings created in an effort to enhance their material well-being by utilizing the resources of nature. Our species was able to create this system because our evolutionary history was, in one fundamental respect, unique. the evolution of the bodies and brains of our ancestors resulted, about sixty thousand years ago, in the capacity to acquire and use fully complex language systems. in these systems, a limited number of basic sounds, or phonemes, can be grouped together variously in word symbols within complex grammatical and syntactical structures to convey an infinite variety of meanings.

The ability to coordinate experience based on themes and narratives and to externalize ideas as artifacts allowed our ancestors to live in nonspecies-specific environments and to increase their numbers well beyond . . .

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