Egypt after Mubarak: Liberalism, Islam, and Democracy in the Arab World

Egypt after Mubarak: Liberalism, Islam, and Democracy in the Arab World

Egypt after Mubarak: Liberalism, Islam, and Democracy in the Arab World

Egypt after Mubarak: Liberalism, Islam, and Democracy in the Arab World

Synopsis

Ce livre historique peut contenir de nombreuses coquilles et du texte manquant. Les acheteurs peuvent generalement telecharger une copie gratuite scannee du livre original (sans les coquilles) aupres de l'editeur. Non reference. Non illustre. 1860 edition. Extrait:...'. En revanche, quand il se modere, il devient gracieux comme du venitien, riche comme de l'arabe. Il evoque des images qui lui viennent en foule, et jongle avec ses mots sonores et brillants; quelquefois, il s'emeut et sait pleurer de veritables larmes; plus souvent, il s'emerveille aux recils d'autrefois, il devient splendide comme son ciel. Il se prete avec une souplesse incroyable a l'impression du moment et la rend sans efforts, mais avec une verve, une agitation, une volubilite qui vous etourdit et quelquefois vous gagne. Je m'apercois que j e ne parle plus du dialecte, mais du peuple: c'est qu'en Italie et partout, l'un ne va pas sans l'autre; etre, c'est parler. Une langue ainsi faite ne doit pas manquer de poetes. Naples est peut-etre la ville d'Italie qui en a le plus. Je parle des poetes sortis du peuple, --et par poetes sortis du peuple, je n'entends pas des boulangers de Tarente qui se mettraient a imiter Petrarque, ni des perruquiers de Cosenza qui courraient les chateaux un peu en troubadours et beaucoup en commis voyageurs, --j'entends de pauvres gueux qui ne savent ni lire ni ecrire, chantent pour chanter, sans se demander si on les ecoute, et, laissant des uvres immortelles, meurent 1. On sait en quoi consiste ce miracle: le sang caille du martyr, conserve precieusement dans une fiole, se liquefie solennellement une fois par an, le jour de la fete de saint Janvier, devant le peuple. Quand la liquefaction tarde a s'operer, les lazzarones assembles dans l'eglise vociferent contre le saint des imprecations..

Excerpt

When EGYPT AFTER MUBARAK appeared in 2008,the country seemed to have a stable authoritarian regime. The book argued that this stability was illusory and that the economic and ideological foundations of the statist order of Mubarak were eroding. However, it was unclear when or how a new order would emerge. The book speculated that change would unfold gradually rather than through dramatic transformation of the political and social systems. This prediction was both right and wrong. The rapid removal of Husni Mubarak after eighteen days of massive demonstrations was completely unexpected. However, the pace of reform has been far less rapid and less dramatic than participants in those demonstrations hoped. Change is under way in Egypt. But, its end is not clear and the road ahead is likely to be long and difficult.

THE FALL OF PHARAOH

As Egypt after Mubarak discusses in chapters 4 and 5, Mubarak’s Egypt faced a fundamental contradiction. Since the 1960s, the regime had made a commitment to provide citizens with a wide range of services including jobs in the public sector and the civil service as well as substantial subsidies on food, electricity, gasoline, public transportation, education, and medical care. The regime’s legitimacy was grounded in providing these benefits. However, the economy simply did not generate sufficient wealth or state revenue to sustain these services, particularly as Egypt’s population grew dramatically in the 1980s and 1990s. The regime began to cut back in 1991 as part of a broad market- oriented reform plan. Mubarak and his international supporters hoped that a restructuring of the economy to focus on market forces would generate economic growth, satisfy the public’s expectations of government, and revive the legitimacy of the regime. However, as explained below, these reforms were implemented imperfectly. The rate of job creation was inadequate and the gains from economic restructuring flowed mostly to a small elite. The privatization plan at the heart of the reform program was plagued by corruption in which state assets were sold at fire sale prices to businessmen with close ties to the regime. In addition, the country suffered from high rates of

I am grateful to Nathan Brown for comments on an earlier draft of this essay and to Mark Robson for excellent research assistance.

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