Matthew and the Didache: Two Documents from the Same Jewish-Christian Milieu?

Matthew and the Didache: Two Documents from the Same Jewish-Christian Milieu?

Matthew and the Didache: Two Documents from the Same Jewish-Christian Milieu?

Matthew and the Didache: Two Documents from the Same Jewish-Christian Milieu?

Synopsis

There are significant agreements between the Didache and the Gospel of Matthew as these writings share words, phrases and motifs. In modern scholarship, there seems to be an increasing reluctance, however, to support the thesis that the Didache used Matthew. And, indeed, such a close relationship might equally suggest that both documents were created in the same historical and geographical setting, for example in the Greek-speaking part of Syria. If the Didache and Matthew did indeed emanate from the same geographical, social, and cultural setting, new questions arise. Who were the Christians standing behind the Didache and Matthew? Can we trace the developing interests of the respective community or communities in the different textual layers of the Didache and Matthew? Is it possible to frame the congregation(s) within the social history of Jews and Jewish believers-in-Jesus in first-century Syria? What stage of development or separation between Christians, Jewish Christians, and Jews is envisaged?In order to invite discussion and exchange ideas on this fundamental issue, an international conference was organized by the Tilburg Faculty of Theology in April 2003. Scholars of related fields (New Testament, Second Temple Judaism, Liturgy, Patristic Studies) were brought together to debate about the matter in the light of their diverse specialties and previous research. This volume contains the edited proceedings of the meeting of experts.Huub van de Sandt is lecturer in New Testament Studies at the Tilburg Faculty of Theology. Together with the late David Flusser, he is the author of The Didache. Its Jewish Sources and its Place in Early Judaism and Christianity (2002). This stimulating collection of essays from an international group of scholars provides extensive and insightful exploration of the possible relationships between the Gospel of Matthew and the Didache, and of the location of both texts in Jewish/Christian contexts. Warren Carter, Professor of New Testament, Saint Paul School of Theology, Kansas City, Missouri.Matthew and the Didache / Milieu 1 Hypotheses on the Development of Judaism and Christianity in Syria in the Period after 70 C.E. - Bas ter Haar Romeny2 The Milieu of Matthew, the Didache, and Ignatius of Antioch: Agreements and Differences - Clayton N. Jefford II The Two Documents: Their Provenance and Origin3 The History and Social Setting of the Matthean Community - Wim Weren4 When, Why, and for Whom Was the Didache Created? Insights into the Social and Historical Setting of the Didache communities - Aaron Milavec III Two Documents from the Same Jewish-Christian Milieu?5 The Sermon on the Mount and the Two Ways Teaching of the Didache - Kari Syreeni6 The Use of the Synoptics or Q in Did. 1:3b-2:1 - John S. Kloppenborg7 The Halakhic Evidence of Didache 8 and Matthew 6 and the Didache Community's Relationship to Judaism - Peter J. Tomson8 Didache 9-10: A Litmus Test for the Research on Early Christian Liturgy Eucharist - Gerard Rouwhorst9 Les charismatiques itinérants dans la Didachè et dans l Avangile de Matthieu (with an English abstract) - André Tuilier10 Two Windows on a Developing Jewish-Christian Reproof Practice: Matt 18:15-17 and Did. 15:3 - Huub van de Sandt11 Eschatology in the Didache and the Gospel of Matthew - Joseph Verheyden12 Do the Didache and Matthew Reflect an Irrevocable Parting of the Ways with Judaism? - Jonathan A. Draper

Excerpt

In modem scholarship a new consensus is emerging which dates the Didache at about the turn of the First Century C.E. At the same time, significant agreements between the Didache and the gospel of Matthew have been detected as these writings share words, phrases and motifs. There seems to be an increasing reluctance, however, to support the thesis that the Didache used Matthew. And, indeed, such a close relationship might equally suggest that both documents were created in the same historical and geographical setting, for example in the Greek-speaking part of Syria. in the study The Didache. Its Jewish Sources and its Place in Early Judaism and Christianity (CRINT III/5; Van Gorcum/Fortress, 2002), the late David Flusser and I substantiated the evidence supporting the emergence, transmittance, and growth of both writings in a common environment.

Among our arguments suggesting a common environment are that the community of both the Didache and the gospel of Matthew was probably composed of JudaeoChristians from the outset, though each manuscript shows indications of a congregation which appears to have alienated itself from its Jewish background. Additionally, the Two Ways teaching (Did. 1–6) may well have served in some form as a pre-baptismal instruction within the community of the Didache and Matthew. Furthermore, the correspondence of the Trinitarian baptismal formula in the Didache and Matthew (Did. 7 and Matt 28:19) as well as the similar shape of the Lord’s Prayer (Did. 8 and Matt 6:5–13) apparently reflect the use of resembling oral forms of church traditions. Finally, both the community of the Didache (Did. 11–13) and Matthew (Matt 7:1523; 10:5–15, 40–42; 24:11, 24) were visited by itinerant apostles and prophets, some of whom were illegitimate.

In order to invite discussion and exchange ideas on this fundamental issue, an international conference was organized by the Tilburg Faculty of Theology. During 7–8 April 2003, a group of approximately 55 participants from around the globe gathered at the Tilburg University campus. Scholars of related fields (New Testament, Second Temple Judaism, Liturgy, Patristic Studies) were brought together to debate about the matter in the light of their diverse specialisms and previous research. This volume contains the edited proceedings of the expert meeting. Instead of looking at the Didache as a subject of study belonging to Patristics only, the document is considered part of a larger environment of Jewish and Christian religious history. If the Didache and Matthew did indeed emanate from the same geographical, social and cultural setting, new questions arise. Who were the Christians standing behind the Didache and Matthew? Can we trace the developing interests of the respective community or communities in the different textual layers of the Didache and Matthew? Is it possible to frame the congregation(s) within the social history of Jews and Jewish believers-

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