Hard Fighting: Israel in Lebanon and Gaza

Hard Fighting: Israel in Lebanon and Gaza

Hard Fighting: Israel in Lebanon and Gaza

Hard Fighting: Israel in Lebanon and Gaza


Like Israel in 2006, the United States today is likely ill prepared for hybrid warfare. To identify lessons that the U.S. military might learn from the Israeli experience in Lebanon, the author examines the state of the Israeli military before the Second Lebanon War, the lessons it learned during that conflict, the reforms it undertook to address its deficiencies, and how it fared during Operation Cast Lead three years later.


This monograph examines the Israeli experiences in the Second Lebanon War (2006) and Operation Cast Lead (2008–2009) to assess the challenges posed by hybrid adversaries and the military capabilities needed to prevail over them. It describes what happened during the war in Lebanon, why the Israel Defense Forces (IDF) had difficulty fighting Hezbollah, what corrective measures the IDF took after Lebanon, and what happened during the operation in Gaza.

The research presented here shows that the Israeli experience provides compelling insights that will be important to the U.S. joint force—and particularly to the Air Force and the Army—as it considers the capabilities needed in the future to prevail against hybrid challenges. To this end, the monograph makes several recommendations about ways to improve the integration of air power, ground power, and intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance (ISR) across the Air Force and the Army in hybrid warfare.

The research reported here was sponsored by then-Major General William J. Rew, Director of Operational Planning, Policy and Strategy, Deputy Chief of Staff for Operations, Plans and Requirements, Headquarters U.S. Air Force (AF/A5X), and by Major General Francis G. Mahon, Army Quadrennial Defense Review Office, Headquarters U.S. Army (G-8). It was conducted within the Strategy and Doctrine Program of RAND Project AIR FORCE and the Strategy, Doctrine, and Resources Program of RAND Arroyo Center.

The monograph should be of interest to a wide group of U.S. Air Force, U.S. Army, and defense personnel involved in many aspects . . .

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed


An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.