Ending Social Promotion without Leaving Children Behind: The Case of New York City


The New York City Department of Education asked RAND to conduct an independent longitudinal evaluation of its 5th-grade promotion policy. The findings of that study, conducted between March 2006 and August 2009, provide a comprehensive view of the policy's implementation and its impact on student outcomes, particularly for students at risk of retention and those who were retained in grade.

Additional information

Includes content by:
  • Sheila Nataraj Kirby
  • Jennifer Sloan McCombs
  • Louis T. Mariano
  • Nailing Xia
  • Julie A. Marsh
Publisher: Place of publication:
  • Santa Monica, CA
Publication year:
  • 2009


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