LBJ's American Promise: The 1965 Voting Rights Address

LBJ's American Promise: The 1965 Voting Rights Address

LBJ's American Promise: The 1965 Voting Rights Address

LBJ's American Promise: The 1965 Voting Rights Address

Synopsis

Though Lyndon Johnson developed a reputation as a rough-hewn, arm-twisting deal-maker with a drawl, at a crucial moment in history he delivered an address to Congress that moved Martin Luther King Jr. to tears and earned praise from the media as the best presidential speech in American history. Even today, his voting rights address of 1965 ranks high not only in political significance, but also as an example of leadership through oratory. Garth E. Pauley carefully analyzes both the content and the context of this historic speech. He begins with an analysis of the less-than-linear path of voting rights in the United States, and highlights the failures and limited successes of previous legislation. Many commentators have seen Johnson's voting rights speech as a response to the escalating protests in Selma, and Pauley explores that connection. Did Johnson wait too long to address the issue? Would he have championed voting rights without the protests? Pauley traces the development of the speech and the policy with these questions in mind. He situates the speech not only within its immediate context but also within Johnson's ideology and value system, tracing the influences on Johnson's racial attitudes and describing the complex of policies he developed to address issues of inequality. Having set the stage for the address, Pauley then carefully analyzes the text itself. He charts the "authorship" of the speech through several drafts by aides, traces the purposefulness of the allusions, and recounts the extemporizing Johnson introduced when he actually delivered the address. He notes the idealistic, even mythic dimensions of the speech, which contrast with its plainspoken style. Finally, Pauley gauges the effectiveness of the speech. He reports the response to the address in the media, among civil rights leaders, and in the general population. Pauley concludes with some reservations about the effectiveness not only of this address but also of the Johnson program for racial justice. Nonetheless, he believes that "Lyndon Johnson's 'We Shall Overcome' speech remains a remarkable achievement," combining principle with rhetorical leadership.

Excerpt

Experts in history, politics, and law often argue about how to rank Lyndon B. Johnson’s presidency, offering different summary judgments of his peculiar combination of skills and deficiencies in the areas of congressional leadership, foreign policy management, political vision, domestic governance, and administrative ability. But few, if any, would argue that Lyndon Baines Johnson—LBJ— was one of the United States’ better presidential orators. As a speaker, Johnson often appeared affected and ill at ease: His pacing was clumsy, his voice monotonous, his physical expression awkward, and his articulation poor. Although his mother taught elocution lessons and he himself had taught public speaking in Cotulla and Houston, Texas, lbj seemed in practice ignorant to most of the basic principles of effective oratory. His shortcomings as a presidential orator stemmed from his failure to study and practice the techniques of successful speakers, his discomfort with the electronic media, and his preference for private rather than public persuasion. in many of his speeches, lbj seemed fixed behind the podium and stuck to his speaking script, detached from his immediate and televised audiences, and unable to transfer his considerable interpersonal communication skills to the public forum.

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