The Strategy Makers: Thoughts on War and Society from Machiavelli to Clausewitz

The Strategy Makers: Thoughts on War and Society from Machiavelli to Clausewitz

The Strategy Makers: Thoughts on War and Society from Machiavelli to Clausewitz

The Strategy Makers: Thoughts on War and Society from Machiavelli to Clausewitz

Synopsis

(Screen World). John Willis' Screen World has become the definitive reference for any film library. Each volume includes every significant U.S. and international film released during that year as well as complete filmographies, capsule plot summaries, cast and characters, credits, production company, month released, rating, and running time. You'll also find biographical entries a prices reference for over 2,000 living stars, including real name, school, place and date of birth. A comprehensive index makes this the finest film publication that any film lover could own.

Excerpt

STRATEGY BEFORE THE WORD

Throughout the period we are dealing with here, a range of words was employed for the thinking, planning, and reasoning underlying the conduct of war. The Greek words strategía or strategiké were not yet commo nly used in the West. While there is an explicit definition of tactics—“the science of military movements”—that can be traced back to the fourth century B.C.E., I have found usage, but no corresponding definition of strategy before the time of Emperor Justinian I in the sixth century. There, in an anonymous work, we read this:

Strategy is the means by which a commander may defend his own lands and defeat his enemies. The general is the one who practices strategy … Strategy teaches us how to defend what is our own and to threaten what belongs to the enemy. The defensive is the means by which one acts to guard one’s own people and their property, the offensive is the means by which one retaliates against one’s opponents.

Around 900, the Byzantine emperor Leo VI wrote a work on warfare, in which he used the word strategía to provide an overall term for the higher business of the strategós. For Leo, strategía encompassed subordinate tactics (the knowledge of how to move armed forces on land or sea and bring them to fight) and also fortifications; siegecraft; architecture and mechanics; logistics and mathematics; recruitment; and even medicine, astronomy, religion, philosophy, ethics, politics, and history. Leo’s work seems to have gone largely unknown in the Occident until the fall of . . .

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