Managing Ethnic Diversity after 9/11: Integration, Security, and Civil Liberties in Transatlantic Perspective

Managing Ethnic Diversity after 9/11: Integration, Security, and Civil Liberties in Transatlantic Perspective

Managing Ethnic Diversity after 9/11: Integration, Security, and Civil Liberties in Transatlantic Perspective

Managing Ethnic Diversity after 9/11: Integration, Security, and Civil Liberties in Transatlantic Perspective

Synopsis

America's approach to terrorism has focused on traditional national security methods, under the assumption that terrorism's roots are foreign and the solution to greater security lies in conventional practices. Europe offers a different model, with its response to internal terrorism relying on police procedures.

Managing Ethnic Diversity after 9/11 compares these two strategies and considers that both may have engendered greater radicalization--and a greater chance of home-grown terrorism. Essays address how transatlantic countries, including the United Kingdom, the United States, France, Germany, Spain, Italy, and the Netherlands have integrated ethnic minorities, especially Arabs and Muslims, since 9/11. Discussing the "securitization of integration," contributors argue that the neglect of civil integration has challenged the rights of these minorities and has made greater security more remote.

Excerpt

Ariane Chebel D’Appollonia Simon Reich

On June 24, 2008, Levar Haney Washington—a Los Angeles Islamic convert who planned to finance terrorist activities through armed robberies—was sentenced to twenty-two years in federal prison. He was convicted on terrorism conspiracy charges. At his sentencing hearing, he told a federal judge he belonged to a prison-based Islamic terrorist cell. Documents found at the scene of their arrest included plans to attack the Los Angeles International Airport, the Israeli consulate, army recruiting centers, and local synagogues. Washington claimed that he and three other defendants were members of Jam’iyyat Ul-Islam Is-Saheeh, a militant Islamic organization formed in California prisons. the following month, Gregory Patterson, an accomplice of Haney’s, received a comparable sentence.

Although United Press International reported both stories, neither made the front page of the New York Times or the Washington Post. Yet these indictments were not as isolated as they might seem. There are, indeed, good reasons to believe that the issue of Islamist terrorism is becoming more threatening in the United States, as illustrated by the so-called Lackawanna Seven who were arrested in September 2002 for providing material support to terrorists. Likewise, the conspiracy to attack Fort Dix—involving six landed immigrants—was another example of a planned high-profile attack thwarted by federal authorities. Indeed, five of the immigrants were convicted of conspiracy to kill U.S. soldiers in December 2008, the sixth having pleaded guilty to a lesser charge.

Across the United States, much has been made over the course of the last decade of the challenge to national and civil security threatened by terrorists posing as immigrants and visitors, an issue that we ourselves addressed in a recent coedited book on the subject, Immigration, Integration and Security: America and Europe in Comparative Perspective. Yet while a new literature has developed on the subject of immigration and security, comparatively little work has examined the issue of the threat posed by a lack of integration of landed immigrants and their . . .

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