When Ivory Towers Were Black: A Story about Race in America's Cities and Universities

When Ivory Towers Were Black: A Story about Race in America's Cities and Universities

When Ivory Towers Were Black: A Story about Race in America's Cities and Universities

When Ivory Towers Were Black: A Story about Race in America's Cities and Universities


When Ivory Towers Were Black lies at the potent intersection of race, urban development, and higher education. It tells the story of how an unparalleled cohort of ethnic minority students earned degrees from a world-class university. The story takes place in New York City at Columbia University's School of Architecture and spans a decade of institutional evolution that mirrored the emergence and denouement of the Black Power Movement. Chronicling a surprisingly little-known era in U.S. educational, architectural, and urban history, the book traces an evolutionary arc that begins with an unsettling effort to end Columbia's exercise of authoritarian power on campus and in the community, and ends with an equally unsettling return to the status quo.

When Ivory Towers Were Black follows two university units that steered the School of Architecture toward an emancipatory approach to education early along its evolutionary arc: the school's Division of Planning and the university-wide Ford Foundation-funded Urban Center. It illustrates both units' struggle to open the ivory tower to ethnic minority students and to involve them, and their revolutionary white peers, in improving Harlem's slum conditions. The evolutionary arc ends as backlash against reforms wrought by civil rights legislation grew and whites bought into President Richard M. Nixon's law-and-order agenda. The story is narrated through the oral histories of twenty-four Columbia alumni who received the gift of an Ivy League education during this era of transformation but who exited the School of Architecture to find the doors of their careers all but closed due to Nixon-era urban disinvestment policies.

When Ivory Towers Were Black assesses the triumphs and subsequent unraveling of this bold experiment to achieve racial justice in the school and in the nearby Harlem/East Harlem community. It demonstrates how the experiment's triumphs lived on not only in the lives of the ethnic minority graduates but also as best practices in university/community relationships and in the fields of architecture and urban planning. The book can inform contemporary struggles for racial and economic equality as an array of crushing injustices generate movements similar to those of the sixties and seventies. Its first-person portrayal of how a transformative process got reversed can help extend the period of experimentation, and it can also help reopen the door of opportunity to ethnic minority students, who are still in strikingly short supply in elite professions like architecture and planning.


The 1960s and early 1970s were socially and politically disruptive and divisive times, eerily, and sadly, almost identical to those this country is currently experiencing. in When Ivory Towers Were Black, Sutton explores the history of race and power at one of this nation’s most distinguished universities.

On December 17, 1972, a fire burned our family out of its home. Coinciding with this was my beginning tenure as the fifth dean of the School of Architecture at Columbia University. That day I went from fire to fire.

A few of the dramatic events that occurred just before and during these early days of my tenure defined the context of these turbulent times.

In 1968, nineteen days after the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., as the nation quaked with the fear of race riots, the first confrontation of the student-led “revolution” at Columbia University occurred.

In 1969 the military draft was authorized, Richard Nixon’s swearing-in as president initiated four years of covert bombing in Cambodia, and an unprecedented flood of African American students entered the academy, including at Columbia’s School of Architecture.

In 1970 the massacre of unarmed students at Kent State University took place, sparking student strikes at hundreds of universities, colleges, and high schools across the nation.

In 1971 a half million people (my family among them) marched in Washington, D.C., to oppose the Vietnam War. Shortly thereafter, the NewYork Times fueled national outrage by publishing portions of the Pen-

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