International Security and Peacebuilding: Africa, the Middle East, and Europe

International Security and Peacebuilding: Africa, the Middle East, and Europe

International Security and Peacebuilding: Africa, the Middle East, and Europe

International Security and Peacebuilding: Africa, the Middle East, and Europe

Synopsis

The end of the Cold War was to usher in an era of peace based on flourishing democracies and free market economies worldwide. Instead, new wars, including the war on terrorism, have threatened international, regional, and individual security and sparked a major refugee crisis. This volume of essays on international humanitarian interventions focuses on what interests are promoted through these interventions and how efforts to build liberal democracies are carried out in failing states. Focusing on Africa, the Middle East, and Europe, an international group of contributors shows that best practices of protection and international state-building have not been applied uniformly. Together the essays provide a theoretical and empirical critique of global liberal governance and, as they note challenges to regional and international cooperation, they reveal that global liberal governance may threaten fragile governments and endanger human security at all levels.

Excerpt

The end of the Cold War was supposed to usher in a new era of real peace based on flourishing democracies and free market economies around the word. When Francis Fukuyama proclaimed the end of history, the idea was that democracy and free market economy had been proven to be better than all other systems in advancing freedom, prosperity, and peace. While multiparty democracy and free market economy have spread to more countries, insecurity has also increased in many corners of the word. Since the end of the Cold War, new forms of insecurity have emerged. Mary Kaldor refers to post–Cold War wars as new wars. As Kaldor writes, new wars

Are wars that take place in the context of the disintegration of states (typically
authoritarian states under the impact of globalization); wars that are fought
by networks of state and non-state actors, often without uniforms … as in
the case of the Croatian militia in Bosnia Herzegovina; wars where battles are
rare and where most violence is directed against civilians as a consequence of
counter-insurgency tactics or ethnic cleansing; wars where taxation is falling
and war finance consists of loot and pillage, illegal trading and other war
generated revenue; wars where the distinctions between combatant and non
combatant, legitimate violence and criminality are all breaking down; wars
that exacerbate the disintegration of the state…. Above all, these wars con
struct new sectarian identities (religious, ethnic or tribal) that undermine the
sense of a shared political community.

New wars, including terrorism warfare, have now become the key threat to international and regional security. New wars have plagued countries in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, South Asia, and Africa and sent refugees and fear to all other parts of the world, including Western Europe and the United States of America. At the same time, countries neighboring places where new wars are waged continue to receive huge influxes of refugees.

A critical question in addressing contemporary security challenges is whether the orthodox notion of new wars is applicable to wars related to the War on . . .

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