Tennessee Frontiers: Three Regions in Transition

Tennessee Frontiers: Three Regions in Transition

Tennessee Frontiers: Three Regions in Transition

Tennessee Frontiers: Three Regions in Transition


This chronicle of the formation of Tennessee from indigenous settlements to the closing of the frontier in 1840 begins with an account of the prehistoric frontiers and a millennia-long habitation by Native Americans. The rest of the book deals with Tennessee's historic period beginning with the incursion of Hernando de Soto's Spanish army in 1540. John R. Finger follows two narratives of the creation and closing of the frontier. The first starts with the early interaction of Native Americans and Euro-Americans and ends when the latter effectively gained the upper hand. The last land cession by the Cherokees and the resulting movement of the tribal majority westward along the "Trail of Tears" was the final, decisive event of this story. The second describes the period of Euro-American development that lasts until the emergence of a market economy. Though from the very first Anglo-Americans participated in a worldwide fur and deerskin trade, and farmers and town dwellers were linked with markets in distant cities, during this period most farmers moved beyond subsistence production and became dependent on regional, national, or international markets.

Two major themes emerge from Tennessee Frontiers: first, that of opportunity the belief held by frontier people that North America offered unique opportunities for advancement; and second, that of tension between local autonomy and central authority, which was marked by the resistance of frontier people to outside controls, and between and among groups of whites and Indians. Distinctions of class and gender separated frontier elites from lesser whites, and the struggle for control divided the elites themselves. Similarly, native society was riddled by factional disputes over the proper course of action regarding relations with other tribes or with whites. Though the Indians lost in fundamental ways, they proved resilient, adopting a variety of strategies that delayed those losses and enabled them to retain, in m


For most Americans “the West” refers to the western half of the nation. From the Great Plains across the Rockies and the intermontane plateaus to the Pacific Ocean, “the American West” conjures up a flood of popular images: trappers, cowboys, miners, and homesteading families; the Marlboro man and countrywestern music. This has been the West since the California Gold Rush and the migration of ’49ers propelled the region into the national consciousness.

But it was not always so. There was an earlier American West, no less vivid and no less dramatic. Here the fabled figures were not John Charles Frémont and Geronimo, but Daniel Boone and Tecumseh; not Calamity Jane and “Buffalo Bill” Cody, but Rachel Jackson and Davy Crockett. Geographically, this earlier West extended from the crest of the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River, from the border with Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. It was the West of Euro-American expansion from before the American Revolution until the middle of the nineteenth century, when the line of frontier settlement moved through the first West toward that new, farther West.

Initially the story of the first American West involved two sets of characters: first, the white people of European origin, and south of the Ohio River, African-American slaves, who were spreading relentlessly westward; second, the original settlers, the Native Americans, who retreated grudgingly before the flood. the first Europeans, French and Spanish, appeared on this landscape in the 1600s and early 1700s, and their interactions with the original native peoples involved both cooperation and conflict. the English arrived a half-century later. the Europeans were almost always a minority in number, so they and the Indians sought . . .

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