Five Days in October: The Lost Battalion of World War I

Five Days in October: The Lost Battalion of World War I

Five Days in October: The Lost Battalion of World War I

Five Days in October: The Lost Battalion of World War I

Synopsis

During American participation in World War I, many events caught the public's attention, but none so much as the plight of the Lost Battalion. Comprising some five hundred men of the Seventy-seventh Division, the so-called battalion was entrapped on the side of a ravine in the Argonne Forest by German forces from October 2 to 7, 1918. The men's courage under siege in the midst of rifle, machine-gun, mortar, and artillery fire (coming both day and night), with nothing to eat after the morning of the first day save grass and roots, and with water dangerous to obtain, has gone down in American history as comparable in heroism to the defense of the Alamo and the stand at the Little Big Horn of the troops of General George A. Custer. Now, in Five Days in October, historian Robert H. Ferrell presents new material--previously unavailable--about what really happened during those days in the forest. Despite the description of them as a lost battalion, the men were neither lost nor a battalion. The name was coined by a New York newspaper editor who, upon learning that a sizable body of troops had been surrounded, thought up the notion of a Lost Battalion--it possessed a ring sure to catch the attention of readers. The trapped men actually belonged to companies from two battalions of the Seventy-seventh, and their exact placement was well known, reported by runners at the outset of the action and by six carrier pigeons released by their commander, Major Charles W. Whittlesey, during the five days his men were there. The causes of the entrapment were several, including command failures and tactical errors. The men had been sent ahead of the main division line without attention to flanks, and because of that failure, they were surrounded. Thus began a siege that took the lives of many men, leading to the collapse of the colonel of the 308th Infantry Regiment and, many believe, to the suicide of Major Whittlesey three years later. This book grew out of Ferrell's discovery of new material in the U.S. Army Military History Institute at the Army War College from the papers of General Hugh A. Drum and in the National Archives in College Park, Maryland. The Drum papers contain the court-martial record of the lieutenant of a machine-gun unit attached to the battalions, who advised Major Whittlesey to surrender, while the Seventy-seventh Division files contain full accounts of the taut relations between the Lost Battalion's brigade commander and the Seventy-seventh's division commander. By including this material, Ferrell gives a new accounting of this intriguing affair. Five Days in October will be welcomed by all those interested in a fuller understanding of the story of the Lost Battalion.

Excerpt

No single action of the U.S. Army in France in World War I received such attention, both within the American high command and from newspaper accounts throughout the country. One hundred million Americans, people said, knew about it (the country had reached a population of one hundred million in 1915). the valor of the surrounded troops during the great battle of the Meuse-Argonne in 1918 seemed comparable to that of the men of the Alamo and to the force of George A. Custer at the Little Big Horn. the whole affair was memorable when other events of the war blurred and became almost forgotten; Americans could not forget what it meant for five hundred men surrounded in the Argonne Forest to fight for five days, fired upon morning to night by riflemen, machine guns, mortars, and on occasion artillery, with nothing to eat after the morning of the first day save grass and roots—what it meant to defy the German foe until relief at last came. the commander of the embattled troops, a tall, lanky, bespectacled New York lawyer, Major Charles W. Whittlesey, said that when the men heard the whine of the Springfields, the distinctive sound of Chauchat submachine guns, in the hands of the relieving 307th Infantry Regiment, becoming ever louder, ever closer, it was like the bagpipes of the relieving British force approaching Lucknow during the Sepoy Rebellion.

It was said at the time and later that the Lost Battalion was neither lost nor a battalion, and this was true, but the bravery of the American defenders was not lessened by such facts. On the days after the troops went into what soon was described as a pocket, on . . .

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