Colonel Henry Theodore Titus: Antebellum Soldier of Fortune and Florida Pioneer

Colonel Henry Theodore Titus: Antebellum Soldier of Fortune and Florida Pioneer

Colonel Henry Theodore Titus: Antebellum Soldier of Fortune and Florida Pioneer

Colonel Henry Theodore Titus: Antebellum Soldier of Fortune and Florida Pioneer


The first full-length biography of a saloon-brawling braggart and frontier opportunist turned justice of the peace

Henry Theodore Titus (1822–1881) was the quintessential adventurer, soldier of fortune, and small-time entrepreneur, a man for whom any frontier—geographical, cultural, social—was an opportunity for advancement. Although born in Trenton, New Jersey, and raised in New York and Pennsylvania, Titus bore no allegiance to his native soil or the Yankee values of his ancestors. In the 1850s he became a staunch defender of Southern slavery, U. S. expansionism into the Caribbean Basin, and ultimately the Confederacy's war of disunion. In Colonel Henry Theodore Titus, the first full-length biography of Titus, Antonio Rafael de la Cova reveals a man whose life and adventures offer glimpses into aspects of nineteenth-century America not often examined; these indicate the extent to which personal and collective violence, racial prejudice, and moral ambiguities shaped the country at the time.

Belligerent, intemperate, egomaniacal, and of imposing stature, Titus was the bête noire of the abolitionist press. Despite his Northern roots, he became a caricature of the Southern braggart and frontier opportunist. National newspapers followed his reckless exploits during most of his adult life. Titus fought brawls in the saloons of luxury hotels and narrowly escaped the hangman's noose as a Border Ruffian leader in Bleeding Kansas, a Nicaraguan firing squad as a filibuster, and death in a Comanche ambush in Texas. He nearly prompted an international incident between the United States and Great Britain when he was arrested in Nicaragua for threatening to shoot a British naval officer and disparaging the queen of England. The colonel was jailed in New York City for disorderly conduct and trying "to organize the desperate classes for a riot."

During his lifetime Titus held more than a dozen occupations, including sawmill owner, postal inspector, soldier of fortune, grocer, planing mill salesman, farmer, slave overseer, turtler, bartender, land speculator, and hotel keeper. He pursued silver mining in the Gadsden Purchase portion of the Arizona Territory where his brother was killed and their hacienda destroyed by Apaches. Despite his violent character and his pro-Confederate values, Titus was politically savvy. He did not take up arms during the Civil War. After a brief stint as assistant quartermaster in the Florida militia, he returned to civilian life and sold foodstuffs and slave labor to the Confederacy. Florida Reconstruction governors later appointed him as notary public and justice of the peace.

Rheumatism and gout kept Titus bound to a wheelchair during the last few years of his life when he became an avid civic leader. His greatest legacy was ironically his most benign. Borrowing what today would be a half a million dollars, he established a grocery store and a sawmill in a hardscrabble Florida frontier settlement that became the city of Titusville, the county seat of Brevard County and tourist gateway to Cape Canaveral and the Kennedy Space Center.


During the dozen years between the Mexican War and the Civil War (1848–60), thousands of youthful American adventurers pursuing fame, fortune, and glory joined the military filibuster expeditions that invaded Cuba and Nicaragua. a multitude of others migrated west desiring preemptive land or went prospecting for gold and silver in the western mountains. It was a generation whose general needs and aspirations were destined to redefine the character of the American nation. Henry Theodore Titus (1822–81), brash, boisterous, hefty, and short-tempered, personified these men seeking those multiple opportunities. a lifelong Whig Party adherent, he fit well into the strange anomaly of native northerners, such as Gen. John Quitman, governor of Mississippi, and John Calhoun, the surveyor general of Kansas and Nebraska who presided over the Lecompton Constitutional Convention, who passionately defended slavery after relocating to the South. Titus was a colorful figure, and his exploits were quite amazing.

Titus inherited his pioneering spirit and stubborn, independent character from his pilgrim ancestors who after arriving in the Massachusetts Bay Colony port of Boston in 1635, were eventually banished from the community. His father had the same personal traits in addition to taking reckless risks with life and property, which became his son’s hallmark. Henry Titus’s business enterprises included operating a sawmill, a grocery store, a cannery, and a combination restaurant/billiard hall/saloon; and being a land speculator, a slave overseer, a planing mill salesman, a miner, a hotel keeper, a farmer, and a hunter of Florida sea turtles and their colossal eggs. At the age of thirty he wed into “one of the best and most influential families” of Florida and proved to be an exemplary family man. His thirty-year matrimony produced . . .

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