Transnational Messages: Experiences of Chinese and Mexican Immigrants in American Schools

Transnational Messages: Experiences of Chinese and Mexican Immigrants in American Schools

Transnational Messages: Experiences of Chinese and Mexican Immigrants in American Schools

Transnational Messages: Experiences of Chinese and Mexican Immigrants in American Schools

Synopsis

Foreword by Chief Justice Thomas R. Phillip- Acknowledgments-Part I. Introduction: Getting and Keeping a Competitive Edge- Introduction- 1. Writing like a Lawyer- 2. Writing's a Touchy Subject- 3. Focus on Density- 4. Attorneys and Writer's Block- 5. Min(d)ing the Field: Appellate Judges Speak Out-Part II. Manipulating Legal Sentences: First Aid- 6. The Long Sentence- 7. Left-Handed Sentences- 8. Marshmallow Constructions- 9. Cases and Citations Within the Text- 10. Coordination and Subordination: Defining Relationships- 11. Examining Other Professional Prose- 12. Emulating the Pro's Prose: Stylistic Consciousness- 13. Deliberate Sentence Structure- 14. Beware of Ambiguous Modifiers-Part III. Manipulating Legal Organization: Structure Is Meaning- 15. Organization and the Deductive Thrust- 16. Organizational Advice for Successful Drafting- 17. Quick Tricks for Organization-Part IV Manipulating Words: Bigger Isn't Better- 18. Jargon: Manure, Margarine, and Moderation- 19. Boilerplate: Empty Formalisms- 20. Gender-Neutral Language- 21. That's Not What I Meant-Part V. Punctuating for Clarity: The Poetry of Punctuation- 22. Allowing Commas to Create Meaning- 23. Sentence Punctuation Guide- 24. "Quotation Marks?" She Queried-or, The Arbitrary Rules Surrounding Quotation Marks- 25. That Sophisticated Semicolon- 26. Compound Adjectives and Noun Strings-Part VI. Advice and References: So Go Be an Expert- 27. Testing Your Basics- 28. Grammar Rules Versus Suggestions- 29. Advice to Partners About Advice- 30. Reference Books for Legal Writers- Index

Excerpt

Since the establishment of the United States as an independent country, immigrant student populations have drawn the attention of several scholars and reformers in the educational arena (Kloss, 1977). the long history of immigration to the U.S. has witnessed the influx of major waves of immigration at different points (Joppke, 1999; Rose, 1997). While the first major wave of immigrants, at the turn of the 20 century, came from Europe, in the last 20 years the United States “have experienced large-scale immigration from new source areas, particularly from Asia as well as from Latin America” (Castles & Miller, 1998, p. 6).

The assimilation model emerged as a construct that explained the way European immigrants of the early 20th century lived their lives in their new locality, the United States (Cornell & Hartmann, 1998). Assimilation assumed that as different cultural groups came in contact with one another, the immigrant group would learn and adopt the culture of the majority group in the receiving country in order to participate in the new locality (Spindler & Spindler, 1990; Keefe & Padilla, 1987). Some critics of assimilation suggest that this model failed to represent the experience of non-White immigrants who arrived during the second half of the 20th century (Castles & Miller, 1998; Schuck & Münz, 1998). Because most immigration after 1945 was comprised of non-White groups, immigration increased ethnic diversity in most receiving countries (Castles & Miller, 1998). Further, transportation and communication advances have contributed to the formation of a new global economic order, where intercultural and international encounters are more prevalent than before (Appadurai, 1996).

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