China after Five Years of War

China after Five Years of War

China after Five Years of War

China after Five Years of War

Excerpt

WAR USUALLY causes many changes in a nation's political structure and China's is no exception. The creation of a unified superorgan to direct the prosecution of war, centralization of powers in the hands of one man or of a comparatively few men, restrictions on the functions of the legislative branch of the Government, amalgamation of existing organs and establishment of new ones--characteristics familiar to governments of all countries at war--have likewise occurred in China in varying forms and degrees.

Another thing has also happened, outwardly incongruous but logical when viewed in the perspective of China's contemporary history. It is the steady progress of institutionalized democracy. An all-important factor to remember in discussing Chinese politics is the party rule established throughout the nation by the Kuomintang, or the Chinese Nationalist Party, in 1926-27. Therefore on one side is the Kuomintang and on the other the National Government.

The National Government was first organized in 1925 in Canton, and later moved to Nanking in 1927, It was temporarily moved to Chungking in November 1937, after the invasion of some of the eastern provinces by the Japanese.

The titular head of the National Government is the chairman of the State Council, which has thirty-six members. Within the structure of the National Government are the five Yuan, namely, the Executive Yuan, the Legislative Yuan, the Judicial Yuan, the Examination Yuan, and the Control Yuan. Under them are various ministries, commissions and administrations. Independent of the five Yuan are several important organs, such as the National Military Council and the Academia Sinica.

The Kuomintang has its own administrative machinery but in order to direct the National Government it created many years ago a Political Committee under its. Central Executive Committee . . .

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