Instructional Effectiveness of Video Media

Instructional Effectiveness of Video Media

Instructional Effectiveness of Video Media

Instructional Effectiveness of Video Media

Synopsis

Visual forms of instruction are increasingly used as a result of the broader availability of technologies such as broadcasts, teleconferencing, videotapes, videodiscs, and emerging multimedia combinations of computer and digital audio-video technologies. A considerable amount of research stretches back to early work with film, television, and static visual materials that can be of benefit in developing these new forms of instruction. It is important for new work to profit from this accumulated research on the effectiveness and practical benefits of instruction with video and film. Accordingly, a review of this literature will benefit researchers and developers of instruction that use existing and new video technologies. The widespread and growing use of video and video-based media in instruction is based on a perception of television and similar dynamic visual media as having unique and positive attributes. This comprehensive review of the research literature regarding the use and effectiveness of video-based media attempts to summarize the current state of knowledge in this important area. Focusing on empirical findings, the authors have attempted to pull together several threads of research into a single work including works in educational and cognitive psychology, and communication and media research. As such, this book examines the research literature regarding the use of dynamic video media in instruction, including:
• general reviews of the effectiveness, acceptance, and costs of several forms of educational television;
• teaching techniques used effectively with video media;
• the combining of visual and verbal information;
• the effects of motion, animation, and interactivity;
• the relationship between media perceptions and learning;
• the effect of various video production techniques on learning; and
• critical perspectives on learning from media.

Excerpt

As indicated by annual training surveys (e.g., Training Magazine), video technology is either the most frequently used medium in industry or second in use to instructor-led classrooms. Furthermore, video is also used extensively in education, both K-12 and postsecondary. the use of video technology is probably the most prevalent in homes (e.g., TVs and VCRs). However, a major impediment to the effective use of media technologies in education and training is the lack of a credible research-based synthesis of the media and learning findings. Newcomers to the field tend to repeat the history of the field. in particular, with the hype that is associated with each new technological media invention for education and training, a resource is needed to separate myths from wisdom. the authors of this book provide such a resource. the volume is an excellent blend of media research, cognitive science research, and tradecraft knowledge regarding video production techniques.

The research that the authors review involves the following topics: visual learning, verbal-auditory information, news broadcasts, the value of motion and animation in film and video, simulation (including fidelity), the relationship of text and graphics, computer-based learning using video and animated graphics, the role of effort in learning from media, and the concept of media symbol systems. Where available, results from various meta-analyses are also reviewed. the authors discuss media systems in terms of instructional effectiveness and cost benefits. Media systems include educational television, distance learning, and teacher education. Many of the benefits of video are practical ones, for example, convenience, access, standardization, and efficiency.

The authors are scientists at the Navy Personnel Research and Development Center. This center conducts some of the best inhouse behavioral and social science research in the Department of Defense. Since the mid-1970s, I have been an avid consumer of their ideas (at Advanced Research Projects Agency, U.S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, and now at the University of Southern California). Their work has been predominantly for military customers, where the . . .

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