Rebels and Renegades

Rebels and Renegades

Rebels and Renegades

Rebels and Renegades

Excerpt

As the title indicates, Rebels and Renegades is a series of portraits of outstanding representatives of contemporary revolutionary tendencies. No attempt has been made to deal with the personal lives of these leaders. The biographical method has been used as a convenient means of bringing out the cross-currents and internal conflicts which have been agitating the revolutionary and labor movements during the last few generations.

It is characteristic of these movements that the laboring masses were assisted, encouraged and inspired not only by leaders who had risen from their own ranks but also by champions coming from the educated middle classes. The latter have been the exponents of that vast complex of ideas known under the common designation of "Socialism." These educated middle class and lower-middle class exponents of socialism are referred to here as the socialist intellectuals or the socialist intelligentsia. The term "intellectual" is understood in various senses, the most common in America being that of "highbrow," or, generally speaking, a person with cultural pretensions. Here, however, it is used in the more specifically economic sense of a stratum deriving its livelihood from mental occupations. In Europe great numbers of this class have played a prominent rôle in the revolutionary and labor movements of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

There is no doubt that these struggles have contributed toward an improved standard of living for large sections of the working population and have given them an increased . . .

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