Applications of Personal Control

Applications of Personal Control

Applications of Personal Control

Applications of Personal Control

Excerpt

How do people manage their environments? What processes are basic to the interactions between people and their environments? These questions are central to almost all areas of psychology but in a more narrow sense are the heart of environmental psychology. Some environmental studies focus on the antecedents of person-environment interactions, others on the effects of the environment on the individual, and others on outcomes. Still others focus on the processes by which people attempt to manipulate their surroundings. This volume, the second in a series, is concerned with one of these processescontrol, actual and perceived, that individuals exercise over their environment.

Of all the basic processes offered to explain environmental coping, control is one of the most thoroughly explored, widely cited, and generally accepted. Control has been considered in a variety of studies and has been defined in a number of ways. Often an operant definition is used -- control is seen as a positive relation between responses and outcomes, although this relationship is usually implicit rather than explicit. At other times, control is a concept that is implied rather than exercised. For example, in several studies in the literature, the subject has a switch that, if pressed, could terminate an experiment. Even though the subject chooses not to press the switch, and, in effect, elects to undergo some environmental stimulation, the existence of the switch is considered an illustration of environmental control -- in this case perceived, not actual. Thus, control may be real or perceived, objective or subjective. Control may also be seen as freedom to choose among courses of action, outcomes, or situations and may refer to onset or offset of the person's actions or environmental events. In short, control refers to regulation of . . .

Search by... Author
Show... All Results Primary Sources Peer-reviewed

Oops!

An unknown error has occurred. Please click the button below to reload the page. If the problem persists, please try again in a little while.