The writing of this book has spread over several years, and the preparation has lasted longer still. My first encounter with the historical world of Asia Minor dates back to 1970, when I began work on an Oxford D.Phil. thesis, The History and Archaeology of Galatia, which was completed in 1974. I owe much to the supervisors of that thesis, the late E. W. Gray, whose Oxford undergraduate lectures on Asia Minor provided me with notes which I still use with profit; and E. L. Bowie, who has constantly encouraged me to pursue the human and humane interest of even the driest material. The greatest stimulation in these years and later, however, came from constant contact with the inexhaustible wealth of historical and archaeological material in Turkey itself. Repeated visits for the purpose of travel or specific research, usually under the aegis of the British Institute of Archaeology at Ankara, converted me into one of the many scholars, and the far greater number of other travellers, who have fallen under Anatolia's powerful spell. Gradually, I venture to hope, the fascination has come to be matched by a measure of understanding of its complex history.
The book could not have been completed without the support of several institutions. The first part was written in the summer of 1981, during a term of sabbatical leave granted by the University College of Swansea. Swansea also gave me a year's leave of absence in 1983/4, which enabled me to accept an appointment as a visiting member of the School of Historical Studies, at the Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton. A Fellowship Grant from the Leverhulme Foundation as well as the support of the Institute itself helped to make this stay a financial possibility. I had optimistically hoped that the year's leave would suffice to complete the planned book. The foundations for Parts 11 and III were indeed laid in Princeton, but like many other visiting members of the Institute I found that the stay there served above all to broaden my historical horizons, and led me to ask questions of the evidence which lay well beyond the scope of the original plan. This was in no small measure due to the stimulus of working in an extraordinary constellation of ancient historians, including many with a special interest in Asia Minor, who gathered in Princeton that year under the guidance of Professors Glen Bowersock and Christian Habicht. Teaching commitments in Swansea and research on other topics prevented me from finishing the project quickly, but made it possible to take account of much new evidence . . .