The Economic Benefits of Predicting Job Performance - Vol. 1

The Economic Benefits of Predicting Job Performance - Vol. 1

The Economic Benefits of Predicting Job Performance - Vol. 1

The Economic Benefits of Predicting Job Performance - Vol. 1

Synopsis

This work comprises three volumes that, taken together, provide a comprehensive treatment of both selection and classification processes in personnel testing. The authors summarize the major theories and research findings in both areas and discuss the central topics involved in the practical prediction of job performance, including validity and utility models and research strategies and designs. Based on their analysis, they introduce a new theory, the differential assignment theory, and explain its contribution to the efficient operation of selection and classification procedures.

Excerpt

The authors have had a long association with selection and classification research in the military. One of our earliest efforts involved participating in the development and implementation of the Army's first differential aptitude battery, the Army Classification Battery (ACB). This new classification system was a major innovation in personnel operations; the aptitude areas, in place of the single measure for the Army General Classification Test (AGCT) of World War II, allowed the use of scores that indicated differences among abilities within each individual (inter- and intra-individual differences). This change permitted allocating personnel to jobs much more efficiently.

The value of using several aptitude areas rather than one depends upon the presence of potential allocation efficiency (PAE) in the battery from which the tests constituting the aptitude areas were drawn. There was considerable PAE in the versions of ACB during the first 15 years of its use. But studies showed a steadily declining trend in the amount of PAE present with changes of ACB content during the period, starting in 1976, that the ACB was being transitioned into the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB) for use by all military services as the common or joint service selection and classification battery.

A serious shortcoming of the current ASVAB composites is their limited ability to differentiate among job families. The same aptitude area composite used to select individuals specific to a job within a job family does nearly as well for jobs in other job families. While these composites may be highly valid within specified job families, the battery's composites appear lacking in differential validity and thus promise little PAE in the ASVAB.

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