Cognitive Science and the Symbolic Operations of Human and Artificial Intelligence: Theory and Research into the Intellective Processes

Cognitive Science and the Symbolic Operations of Human and Artificial Intelligence: Theory and Research into the Intellective Processes

Cognitive Science and the Symbolic Operations of Human and Artificial Intelligence: Theory and Research into the Intellective Processes

Cognitive Science and the Symbolic Operations of Human and Artificial Intelligence: Theory and Research into the Intellective Processes

Synopsis

This scholarly book presents and critically evaluates the outstanding contributions of both cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence to our understanding of the nature of intelligence and intelligent systems. Examining conceptual thought across the domains of reasoning and logic, language and analogy, and scientific discovery, Wagman compares human reasoning with computer reasoning. Of special interest to readers is the general critique of artificial intelligence research directed toward the ultimate objective of mapping and surpassing all of human knowledge.

Excerpt

The study of thinking has been undertaken by the disciplines of cognitive pschology and artificial intelligence. Although significant advances have be made, full understanding of the nature of human conceptual thought has yet to be achieved. This book critically examines current theory and research indicative of present status and future promise.

The first chapter of the book focuses on the primary importance of logic and knowledge in cognitive systems. The theoretical foundations of the logical approach to artificial intelligence and the architecture of intelligent agents are examined in depth. The centrality of declarative knowledge and of the predicate calculus is discussed.

The centrality of knowledge in artificial intelligence systems is manifest in the ten-year CYC (from enCYClopedia) research program. CYC, designated to be completed by 1999, will contain an immense knowledge base that comprehensively organizes human knowledge. CYC is systematically compared with logicism and with situated computationalism on a series of foundational issues in artificial intelligence.

The second chapter focuses on significant aspects of human reasoning. Beleif-bias effects on logical reasoning and reasoning about causes and enabling conditions is discussed. The probabilistic contrast model of causal reasoning is identified as a significant advance in the development of a mathematical conceptualization of human reasoning.

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