Constitutions, Electoral Laws, Treaties of States in the Near and Middle East

Constitutions, Electoral Laws, Treaties of States in the Near and Middle East

Constitutions, Electoral Laws, Treaties of States in the Near and Middle East

Constitutions, Electoral Laws, Treaties of States in the Near and Middle East

Excerpt

This second edition of a book completed in 1946 is, like the first, a documentary record. Like the earlier volume, it is not a history; but the state papers newly added, together with some of the documents reproduced before and again included, aid in the understanding of the troubled years from 1946 to 1950. They reflect part of the story and expose some of the roots of the uneasy relations between Iran and the Soviet Union; the sometimes quiescent but often strained relations between Turkey and her powerful Russian neighbor; the interrupted progress of negotiations between Egypt and the United Kingdom; the rebellion in the Yemen; and above all, the results of the violent upheaval following the relinquishment by the United Kingdom of the Palestine mandate and the formation of the state of Israel. Other situations created by the difficulties between Afghanistan and Pakistan, the internal troubles in Syria, and the problems encountered by the Arab League do not fall within the scope of this collection of documents. Nor, except for the progressive constitution of Syria, adopted in 1950, and in force at the time this is written, do the documents reveal the dawning of social consciousness and the growth of the desire to raise the standard of living of the great Near and Middle Eastern masses--a desire illustrated by the recent social security legislation and the extension of free education in Egypt, and by the program now being adopted in Iran for the benefit of the villagers. This awakening is occurring notwithstanding the fact that local efforts for real improvement of the wretched lot of the Arab refugees are still delayed because of the political aspects of the difficult problems of resettlement.

Throughout this period of internal and external difficulties, the forms of government which were established before 1946 have remained as they were at that time. It is true that since 1946 certain constitutions have been amended and others replaced by completely new texts. As mentioned above, Syria has a new constitution; so also . . .

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