Studies in Economic Development: With Special Reference to Conditions in the Underdeveloped Areas of Western Asia and India

Studies in Economic Development: With Special Reference to Conditions in the Underdeveloped Areas of Western Asia and India

Studies in Economic Development: With Special Reference to Conditions in the Underdeveloped Areas of Western Asia and India

Studies in Economic Development: With Special Reference to Conditions in the Underdeveloped Areas of Western Asia and India

Excerpt

Since the end of the First World War our ideas on the desirable political and economic relations between the nations and communities of the world have been deeply affected by the events on the social and political plane which, for three decades, stirred up the Old World in a nearly ceaseless sequel. Many established patterns of thought and behaviour in international affairs have not survived the test of this crucial period. Classification of the countries of the globe by political and social criteria as used a few decades ago has become out-dated.

The drive for the political liberation of subjugated peoples and nations, which gave direction and content to an important segment of international relations during the first half of this century, has been extended to a new area: rights to economic and social equality, or at least to adjustment of the profound differences between the various living standards of the human race, have been added to the older demands. Political equality only a short time ago highly coveted, means little, when the share in economic and social benefits which modern civilisation can offer remains as appallingly inequal as before.

Such a demand for the economic and social adjustment of nations and regions is a formidable goal. It implies a huge transformation of human and material conditions within national boundaries and beyond them. It requires a new orientation of national and international policies which will have to rely much more than before on the findings and recommendations of science and arts. It raises problems of a magnitude which defy all but the most determined attempts at solution.

The first industrial revolution came to a world which accepted the division of society and nations by political status and possessions as a dictum of fate. The new political credos which grew out of the turmoil of the first half of this century and were strengthened by the formidable potential of the second industrial revolution bear the marks of an activism which was absent in earlier periods; these credos direct pressure against the inequalities of human society and . . .

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