With Eyes toward Zion, Volume II: Themes and Sources in the Archives of the United States, Great Britain, Turkey and Israel - Vol. 2

With Eyes toward Zion, Volume II: Themes and Sources in the Archives of the United States, Great Britain, Turkey and Israel - Vol. 2

With Eyes toward Zion, Volume II: Themes and Sources in the Archives of the United States, Great Britain, Turkey and Israel - Vol. 2

With Eyes toward Zion, Volume II: Themes and Sources in the Archives of the United States, Great Britain, Turkey and Israel - Vol. 2

Synopsis

With Eyes Toward Zion II is a collection of papers by distinguished scholars who have set out to rediscover the Holy Land and what it means to America. They delve into the hundreds of books and pamphlets that have been written by archaeologists, historians, scientists, Biblical scholars, American consuls, novelists, missionaries, tourists, and, above all, settlers and builders of the land. What results is an overview of the relationship between the American people and the Holy Land until the birth of the State of Israel in 1948.

Excerpt

David S. Landes

If one had to date the awakening or reawakening of the Western consciousness of the Holy Land and the corresponding reaction of the inhabitants of the area, one would focus on the 18th century. Critical interactions took place on two fronts. One was the conflict between the Ottoman Empire and its Christian neighbors--the Habsburgs and Hungarians in the Danube basin, the Russians in the Crimea. As late as the end of the 17th century, the Turks reached a second peak of imperial expansion (second siege of Vienna, 1683); but no sooner was the siege lifted than they were obliged to fall back before the Christian counterattack. in 1687, at Mohacs, the Ottomans suffered a defeat like no other in their history, and from then on knew decades of more or less continuous retreat, first from the Danube basin, then from the southern Ukraine and the Crimea. These setbacks compelled them to face up to their technological inferiority and undertake a modernization of educational and military institutions, a task that led them to hire numerous European advisers. At the same time, the subject Christian populations--the Greeks especially--were encouraged by outside sympathizers and sponsors to demand autonomy or more (Russia, for example, seized the opportunity to promote trouble for its Ottoman adversaries), and this newly awakened nationalism led these subject peoples to cultivate ties to Europe and solicit its support against their Muslim overlords.

The second locus of contact and awareness was Egypt. the moment of truth was Bonaparte's invasion in 1798. At the battle of the . . .

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