Preventing AIDS: A Sourcebook for Behavioral Interventions

Preventing AIDS: A Sourcebook for Behavioral Interventions

Preventing AIDS: A Sourcebook for Behavioral Interventions

Preventing AIDS: A Sourcebook for Behavioral Interventions

Synopsis

This book provides a comprehensive overview of behavioral interventions to prevent HIV-AIDS risk-related behaviors. It synthesizes the empirical literature on individual, group, and community-level interventions and provides an objective and detailed assessment of intervention outcomes. Factors associated with behavioral risk for HIV transmission, theories of HIV risk behavior change, and the state of HIV prevention technology transfer are also reviewed. Additionally, behavioral interventions for adolescents and adults of diverse ethnic and sexual backgrounds are discussed with respect to each intervention type. Although the focus is on sexual risk reduction, interventions for sexual behavior of substance abusing populations are also covered.

Excerpt

According to the World Health Organization, more than 10 million people have AIDS worldwide and an estimated 31 million people in the world are HIV infected (Mann ≫ Tarantola, 1996). Since the first five cases of AIDS were described in 1981, there have been hundreds of thousands of people diagnosed with AIDS in the United States, more than half of whom have died (Center for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 1997). The AIDS epidemic has slowed In certain segments of the U.S. population, but there continues to be between 40,000 and 80,000 new HIV infections in the United States each year. Figure P.1 illustrates the rapid accumulation of people diagnosed with AIDS in the United States, showing that the first 100,000 cases of AIDS occurred in the first decade of the epidemic and the second 100,000 cases were diagnosed shortly thereafter. Today, HIV infection is among the leading causes of death for people aged 25 to 44 years old in the United States, often exceeding deaths caused by other diseases and accidents. Thus, unlike other major causes of death that remain relatively stable from year to year, the exponential growth curve of AIDS has created a truly global public health crisis. Also setting HIV infection apart from other leading causes of death is that the causal agent is transmitted from person to person, albeit through only a few well-established modes of transmission.

AIDS was first identified in 1981 as a cluster of relatively rare infections among young men in Los Angeles who apparently shared only their sexual orientation in common; and, as it turned out, some of the same sex partners. These same mysterious diseases soon appeared in New York City and San Francisco (CDC, 1981 a, 1981b). In each case, there was evidence that a badly damaged immune system afforded normally controlled infectious agents the opportunity to cause illness. AIDS had already ravaged Central Africa, and factors such as transcontinental travel, public apathy, and political indifference assured the rapid spread of AIDS across North America and most of . . .

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