This book grew out of my participation in "executive-development" programs conducted by the Center for Programs in Government Administration of the University of Chicago. Since 1954 when these programs first began, I have had about 1,500 government executives in my seminars on organization and on "decision making." They have come from all parts of this country and from a few foreign countries. They have come from all levels of government: federal, state, and local. They have represented the most diverse kinds of governmental activities, from military operations to mental hospitals to large research programs. Most of them have had one thing in common: they were supervisors of relatively complex organizations (by which I mean that they were rarely first-line supervisors).
The development of my own conceptions in this field has been continuous and uniform. I started with the typical pre-World War II textbooks in public and business administration. Formulations drawn from such books were later sub . . .