Exile and Destruction: The Fate of Austrian Jews, 1938-1945

Exile and Destruction: The Fate of Austrian Jews, 1938-1945

Exile and Destruction: The Fate of Austrian Jews, 1938-1945

Exile and Destruction: The Fate of Austrian Jews, 1938-1945

Synopsis

The prevailing neo-prohibitionist approach to reducing alcohol problems is generally ineffective, often counter-productive, and is doomed to failure. This work is to promote an effective alternative strategy to reducing the incidence of alcohol problems. The thesis is that a socio-cultural approach would be effective, and therefore, that public policy should promote this approach. This work is expected to be controversial, and is hoped to form a pattern for reorientation of the current approach to alcohol abuse. Professionals in drug abuse education and treatment along with public policy makers and students in appropriate courses should be interested in the work.

Excerpt

Thousands of years ago, the great valley of the Danube River was an important pathway for the tribes who came to Europe from the East, as well as for traders from the North on their way to Rome and Alexandria.

The Romans soon realized the significance of the region's geographic location and set up strong forts at Carnuntum and Vindobona, today's Carinthia and Vienna. Around A.D. 400, Germanic tribes swept over the land and stayed there and so, with the influx of many different people, the area became a true meeting place for East and West.

While there may have been Jewish traders among the Romans, the first historical recording of a Jewish presence in Austria was dated 906. Called the Toll Ordinance of Raffelstaetten, it was a tax imposed upon Jewish merchants passing from Bavaria into the Balkans.

In the eleventh century a small town called Judenburg (Jewish fort) was established in Austria by a group of Jews, and in 1204 the first Jewish synagogue in Vienna, the country's capital, was opened.

For the next two hundred years, the country was ruled by the Babenberg Dukes, and although the few Jews living in Austria were tolerated and could go about their business, they had to pay very high taxes for this privilege. in a charter dated 1244, Duke Frederick I extended legal protection to the Jews under his rule. He went as far as employing not only a Jewish mint master, but also several financial agents with connections outside his dukedom.

Meanwhile, in the other German-speaking lands, owing mainly to the crusades, there were furious riots aimed against Jews, and some of those . . .

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