Motivation and Visual Factors: Individual Studies of College Students

Motivation and Visual Factors: Individual Studies of College Students

Motivation and Visual Factors: Individual Studies of College Students

Motivation and Visual Factors: Individual Studies of College Students

Excerpt

The investigation of the visual characteristics of the Class of 1940 of Dartmouth College was initiated early in 1936 by Adelbert Ames, Jr., Henry A. Imus, John W. M. Rothney and Robert M. Bear. In 1938, a preliminary report was presented concerning the relationships between visual factors and reading. The results obtained from the statistical analysis of the grouped data led to the conclusion that the relationships among visual conditions, scholastic performance and reading ability were not close. It was decided, therefore, to continue the investigation by intensive study of individuals selected from the original group. This intensive study included consideration of all the physiological and visual data obtained by measurement of many visual conditions of the subjects by the Clinical Division of the Dartmouth Eye Institute. The medical and health histories were studied. All of the available objective evidence of scholastic ability and performance, as well as subjective reports on each subject by members of the faculty were collected and evaluated. At the same time, it became apparent that the factor of motivation would also have to be considered.

As the work progressed, the amount of psychological data necessary for an adequate understanding of the personality and motivational factors of the special subjects began to outweigh that of the visual factors. As a result, the present report may seem to indicate that the latter have been given secondary consideration in the investigation. This apparent discrepancy is explained by the fact that the presentation of the evidence for the description of the individual personality requires considerable space, whereas many of the visual data are readily summarized in numerical terms or classified into simple categories.

Acknowledgments. The chief responsibilities of the authors are described as follows. Irving E. Bender collected the psychological data by means of interviews, autobiographical data and tests; he . . .

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